Porcine circoviruses (PCV) are present in pigs worldwide; they are grouped into two types: PCV1 comprising non-pathogenic viruses and PCV2 responsible for several clinical manifestations. Both types are frequently detected in domestic pigs, the prevalence and role of PCV in wild boars however, is not well studied. During the years 2002-2003 over 2000 organ samples of Hungarian wild boars were collected, grouped and samples from 307 different animals were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of PCV. 35.5% of the wild boars were positive for one or both PCV types and PCV2 was detected in 20.5% of the animals. The PCV2 viruses were divided into 7 groups (WB-H1-7) based on sequencing data and genomes representing these groups were sequenced completely. The wild boar PCV2 groups were distributed evenly in the geographical region, regardless of the time and place of collection. The phylogenetic analysis of the PCV2 sequences of wild boar and domestic pig origin showed the possibility of an epidemiological link between wild boar and domestic pig infections. Interestingly, the complete nucleotide sequence of the viruses and the predicted amino acid sequence of the replication associated protein (ORF1) grouped the viruses similarly, whereas the capsid protein (ORF2) comparisons revealed different relations among the groups, suggesting the possibility of genomic recombination in PCV2.
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