Esophageal cancer is the 9th most frequent malignancy. In more than 90% of all patients with esophageal cancer, the tumour is detected in an advanced stage. Surgery, conventional chemo- and radiotherapy are relatively ineffective. Gene therapy came into the limelight of interest. Authors discuss the genetics, molecular pathogenesis of esophageal squamous carcinoma. Clinical experience in connection with gene therapy of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is discussed. Different targets include complementary nucleic acid treatment (antisense therapy), gene-replacement and importance of small interfering RNA-s.
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