Genetic and morphogenetic reconstruction of 15th cent melon (Cucumis Melo) from seed aDNA

Gábor Gyulai, Zoltán Szabó, O. Törjék

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

ITS, SSR, RAPD and sequence analyses of ancient melon DNA (aDNA) extracted from 600-yr-old seed remains recovered from the 15th CENT site in Budapest (Hungary) were analyzed. An aseptic incubation of seeds followed by ITS (internal transcribed spacer) analysis was used to exclude the exogenously and endogenously contaminated seeds and to detect SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) in ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (667 bp) of rDNA (ribosomal DNA). SNPs of ITS1 were observed at the 94-95th bp (GC to RC, AC, AG, AS, GG, GS, RS); and of ITS2 at 414th bp (A-to-T substitution), 470th bp (T to Y or C), 610th bp (A to R or G) and 633rd bp (A-to-G transition). A medieval sample was compared to 47 current melon cultivars and landraces with a final aim of genotype and phenotype reconstruction of the medieval melon. For RAPD analysis, 60 primers from primer sets OP-A, -K and -M, (1 to 20 in each case) were applied resulting in a total of 105 fragments in the 15th CENT and current melons. Of them, 61 were monomorphic and 44 showed polymorphisms. Microsatellites at nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSR) were detected by automated laser fluorometer (ALF). Eight of the twenty SSR primer pairs tested have amplified 40 microsatellite alleles with a total of 463 fragments in the medieval and current melons. The number of alleles per SSR loci ranged from 2 to 7 with an average of 5.7 including CmCT44 (2 alleles), CmAG59 (5 alleles), CmGA104 (5 alleles), CmCT134 (4 alleles), CmTA134 (6 alleles), CmCTT144 (7 alleles), CmTC168 (6 alleles) and CmCT170 (5 alleles). Sequence analysis of the SSR alleles at the dinucleotide (CT)n and trinucleotide (CTT)n loci showed different fragment lengths depending on changes in the number of core unit. The length of SSRs did not show a time dependent variation in lengths as 15th CENT melon showed SSRs of intermediate sizes compared to current cultivars. Molecular dendrogram, based on the presence versus absence of SSR alleles, revealed that medieval melon had the closest genetic similarity to a current melon cultivar Hógolyó (#24) of inodorus fruit type (also called winter melon, fist-size melon) with smooth yellow rind, and green flesh color. The results indicate the importance of winter melons in the medieval Europe. As the cultivation of melon in Europe started only in the 13th CENT, however, the Hungarians already named melon (dinnye) in the early 11th CENT, the melon samples recovered from the 15th CENT Budapest may originate from one of the oldest cultivated melons in Europe.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPlant Archaeogenetics
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Pages89-104
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9781611226447
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Cucumis melo
Cucurbitaceae
melons
Seeds
alleles
Alleles
DNA
seeds
Microsatellite Repeats
microsatellite repeats
honeydew melons
Ancient DNA
single nucleotide polymorphism
internal transcribed spacers
cultivars
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Sequence Analysis
loci
Hungary

Keywords

  • Ancient DNA (aDNA)
  • Genotype
  • ITS (internal transcribed spacer in ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA)
  • Microsatellites (SSR) - simple sequence repeat)
  • Phenotype
  • RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA)
  • rDNA (ribosomal DNA)
  • SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Gyulai, G., Szabó, Z., & Törjék, O. (2011). Genetic and morphogenetic reconstruction of 15th cent melon (Cucumis Melo) from seed aDNA. In Plant Archaeogenetics (pp. 89-104). Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

Genetic and morphogenetic reconstruction of 15th cent melon (Cucumis Melo) from seed aDNA. / Gyulai, Gábor; Szabó, Zoltán; Törjék, O.

Plant Archaeogenetics. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011. p. 89-104.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Gyulai, G, Szabó, Z & Törjék, O 2011, Genetic and morphogenetic reconstruction of 15th cent melon (Cucumis Melo) from seed aDNA. in Plant Archaeogenetics. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 89-104.
Gyulai G, Szabó Z, Törjék O. Genetic and morphogenetic reconstruction of 15th cent melon (Cucumis Melo) from seed aDNA. In Plant Archaeogenetics. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2011. p. 89-104
Gyulai, Gábor ; Szabó, Zoltán ; Törjék, O. / Genetic and morphogenetic reconstruction of 15th cent melon (Cucumis Melo) from seed aDNA. Plant Archaeogenetics. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011. pp. 89-104
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AU - Gyulai, Gábor

AU - Szabó, Zoltán

AU - Törjék, O.

PY - 2011

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N2 - ITS, SSR, RAPD and sequence analyses of ancient melon DNA (aDNA) extracted from 600-yr-old seed remains recovered from the 15th CENT site in Budapest (Hungary) were analyzed. An aseptic incubation of seeds followed by ITS (internal transcribed spacer) analysis was used to exclude the exogenously and endogenously contaminated seeds and to detect SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) in ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (667 bp) of rDNA (ribosomal DNA). SNPs of ITS1 were observed at the 94-95th bp (GC to RC, AC, AG, AS, GG, GS, RS); and of ITS2 at 414th bp (A-to-T substitution), 470th bp (T to Y or C), 610th bp (A to R or G) and 633rd bp (A-to-G transition). A medieval sample was compared to 47 current melon cultivars and landraces with a final aim of genotype and phenotype reconstruction of the medieval melon. For RAPD analysis, 60 primers from primer sets OP-A, -K and -M, (1 to 20 in each case) were applied resulting in a total of 105 fragments in the 15th CENT and current melons. Of them, 61 were monomorphic and 44 showed polymorphisms. Microsatellites at nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSR) were detected by automated laser fluorometer (ALF). Eight of the twenty SSR primer pairs tested have amplified 40 microsatellite alleles with a total of 463 fragments in the medieval and current melons. The number of alleles per SSR loci ranged from 2 to 7 with an average of 5.7 including CmCT44 (2 alleles), CmAG59 (5 alleles), CmGA104 (5 alleles), CmCT134 (4 alleles), CmTA134 (6 alleles), CmCTT144 (7 alleles), CmTC168 (6 alleles) and CmCT170 (5 alleles). Sequence analysis of the SSR alleles at the dinucleotide (CT)n and trinucleotide (CTT)n loci showed different fragment lengths depending on changes in the number of core unit. The length of SSRs did not show a time dependent variation in lengths as 15th CENT melon showed SSRs of intermediate sizes compared to current cultivars. Molecular dendrogram, based on the presence versus absence of SSR alleles, revealed that medieval melon had the closest genetic similarity to a current melon cultivar Hógolyó (#24) of inodorus fruit type (also called winter melon, fist-size melon) with smooth yellow rind, and green flesh color. The results indicate the importance of winter melons in the medieval Europe. As the cultivation of melon in Europe started only in the 13th CENT, however, the Hungarians already named melon (dinnye) in the early 11th CENT, the melon samples recovered from the 15th CENT Budapest may originate from one of the oldest cultivated melons in Europe.

AB - ITS, SSR, RAPD and sequence analyses of ancient melon DNA (aDNA) extracted from 600-yr-old seed remains recovered from the 15th CENT site in Budapest (Hungary) were analyzed. An aseptic incubation of seeds followed by ITS (internal transcribed spacer) analysis was used to exclude the exogenously and endogenously contaminated seeds and to detect SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) in ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (667 bp) of rDNA (ribosomal DNA). SNPs of ITS1 were observed at the 94-95th bp (GC to RC, AC, AG, AS, GG, GS, RS); and of ITS2 at 414th bp (A-to-T substitution), 470th bp (T to Y or C), 610th bp (A to R or G) and 633rd bp (A-to-G transition). A medieval sample was compared to 47 current melon cultivars and landraces with a final aim of genotype and phenotype reconstruction of the medieval melon. For RAPD analysis, 60 primers from primer sets OP-A, -K and -M, (1 to 20 in each case) were applied resulting in a total of 105 fragments in the 15th CENT and current melons. Of them, 61 were monomorphic and 44 showed polymorphisms. Microsatellites at nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSR) were detected by automated laser fluorometer (ALF). Eight of the twenty SSR primer pairs tested have amplified 40 microsatellite alleles with a total of 463 fragments in the medieval and current melons. The number of alleles per SSR loci ranged from 2 to 7 with an average of 5.7 including CmCT44 (2 alleles), CmAG59 (5 alleles), CmGA104 (5 alleles), CmCT134 (4 alleles), CmTA134 (6 alleles), CmCTT144 (7 alleles), CmTC168 (6 alleles) and CmCT170 (5 alleles). Sequence analysis of the SSR alleles at the dinucleotide (CT)n and trinucleotide (CTT)n loci showed different fragment lengths depending on changes in the number of core unit. The length of SSRs did not show a time dependent variation in lengths as 15th CENT melon showed SSRs of intermediate sizes compared to current cultivars. Molecular dendrogram, based on the presence versus absence of SSR alleles, revealed that medieval melon had the closest genetic similarity to a current melon cultivar Hógolyó (#24) of inodorus fruit type (also called winter melon, fist-size melon) with smooth yellow rind, and green flesh color. The results indicate the importance of winter melons in the medieval Europe. As the cultivation of melon in Europe started only in the 13th CENT, however, the Hungarians already named melon (dinnye) in the early 11th CENT, the melon samples recovered from the 15th CENT Budapest may originate from one of the oldest cultivated melons in Europe.

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KW - Genotype

KW - ITS (internal transcribed spacer in ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA)

KW - Microsatellites (SSR) - simple sequence repeat)

KW - Phenotype

KW - RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA)

KW - rDNA (ribosomal DNA)

KW - SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism)

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