Winterhardiness in cereals is the consequence of a number of complex and interacting component characters: cold tolerance, vernalization requirement, and photoperiod sensitivity. An understanding of the genetic basis of these component traits should allow for more-effective selection. Genome map-based analyses hold considerable promise for dissecting complex phenotypes. A 74-point linkage map was developed from 100 doubled haploid lines derived from a winter x spring barley cross and used as the basis for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to determine the chromosome location of genes controlling components of winterhardiness. Despite the greater genome coverage provided by the current map, a previously-reported interval on chromosome 7 remains the only region where significant QTL effects for winter survival were detected in this population. QTLs for growth habit and heading date, under 16 h and 24 h light, map to the same region. A QTL for heading date under these photoperiod regimes also maps to chromosome 2. Contrasting alleles at these loci interact in an epistatic fashion. A distinct set of QTLs mapping to chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 5 determined heading date under 8 h of light. Under field conditions, all QTLs identified under controlled environment conditions were determinants of heading date. Patterns of differential QTL expression, coupled with additive and additive x additive QTL effects, underscore the complexity of winterhardiness. The presence of unique phenotype combinations in the mapping population suggests that coincident QTLs for heading date and winter survival represent the effects of linkage rather than pleiotropy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science