A survey is presented of recent developments in the field of ion-selective electrodes. Special emphasis is placed on problems of electrode miniaturization and ISFET production. Different electrode types in present use are described and theories for the interpretation of electrode mechanisms are outlined. It is pointed out that the electrode potentials are due to the formation of a space charge. Different applications of ion-selective electrodes are dealt with and the problems connected with the determination of small concentrations are discussed. Attention is given to the selection of conditions under which a reliable measurement of extremely small amounts or extremely small concentrations can be ensured.
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