Gender issues in suicide rates, trends and methods among youths aged 15-24 in 15 European countries

Airi Värnik, Kairi Kõlves, Jüri Allik, Ella Arensman, Esa Aromaa, Chantal van Audenhove, Jean Hervé Bouleau, Christina M. van der Feltz-Cornelis, Giancarlo Giupponi, Ricardo Gusmão, M. Kopp, Andrej Marusic, Margaret Maxwell, Högni Óskarsson, Ann Palmer, Charles Pull, Anu Realo, Thomas Reisch, Armin Schmidtke, Victor Pérez SolaLisa Wittenburg, Ulrich Hegerl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: No recent cross-country examinations for youth suicide trends and methods for Europe were found. Aim: The aim of the study is to specify differences in suicide rates, trends and methods used among 15-24 years olds by gender across 15 European countries. Method: Data for 14,738 suicide cases in the age group 15-24 in 2000-2004/5 were obtained and analysed. Results: Suicide rates ranged 5.5-35.1 for males and 1.3-8.5 for females. Statistically significant decline since 2000 was observed in Germany, Scotland, Spain, and England for males and in Ireland for females. Hanging was most frequently used for both genders, followed by jumping and use of a moving object for males and jumping and poisoning by drugs for females. Male suicides had a higher risk than females of using firearms and hanging and lower risk of poisoning by drugs and jumping. There were large differences between single countries. Limitations: The limitations of the study are the small numbers of specific suicide methods in some countries as well as the re-categorisation of ICD-9 codes into ICD-10 in England, Ireland and Portugal. Further, the use of suicides (X60-X84) without events of undetermined deaths (Y10-Y34) continues to be problematic considering the possibility of "hidden suicides". Conclusions: The present study shows that suicide rates among young males are decreasing since 2000 in several European countries. Analysis of suicide methods confirms that there is a very high proportion of hanging in youths, which is extremely difficult to restrict. However, besides hanging there are also high rates of preventable suicide methods and reducing the availability of means should be one of the goals of suicide prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)216-226
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume113
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009

Fingerprint

Interpersonal Relations
Suicide
International Classification of Diseases
Ireland
England
Poisoning
Portugal
Firearms
Scotland
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Spain
Germany
Age Groups

Keywords

  • Age 15-24
  • Country differences
  • Europe
  • Methods
  • Suicide rates
  • Trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

Värnik, A., Kõlves, K., Allik, J., Arensman, E., Aromaa, E., van Audenhove, C., ... Hegerl, U. (2009). Gender issues in suicide rates, trends and methods among youths aged 15-24 in 15 European countries. Journal of Affective Disorders, 113(3), 216-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2008.06.004

Gender issues in suicide rates, trends and methods among youths aged 15-24 in 15 European countries. / Värnik, Airi; Kõlves, Kairi; Allik, Jüri; Arensman, Ella; Aromaa, Esa; van Audenhove, Chantal; Bouleau, Jean Hervé; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Gusmão, Ricardo; Kopp, M.; Marusic, Andrej; Maxwell, Margaret; Óskarsson, Högni; Palmer, Ann; Pull, Charles; Realo, Anu; Reisch, Thomas; Schmidtke, Armin; Sola, Victor Pérez; Wittenburg, Lisa; Hegerl, Ulrich.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 113, No. 3, 03.2009, p. 216-226.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Värnik, A, Kõlves, K, Allik, J, Arensman, E, Aromaa, E, van Audenhove, C, Bouleau, JH, van der Feltz-Cornelis, CM, Giupponi, G, Gusmão, R, Kopp, M, Marusic, A, Maxwell, M, Óskarsson, H, Palmer, A, Pull, C, Realo, A, Reisch, T, Schmidtke, A, Sola, VP, Wittenburg, L & Hegerl, U 2009, 'Gender issues in suicide rates, trends and methods among youths aged 15-24 in 15 European countries', Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 216-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2008.06.004
Värnik, Airi ; Kõlves, Kairi ; Allik, Jüri ; Arensman, Ella ; Aromaa, Esa ; van Audenhove, Chantal ; Bouleau, Jean Hervé ; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M. ; Giupponi, Giancarlo ; Gusmão, Ricardo ; Kopp, M. ; Marusic, Andrej ; Maxwell, Margaret ; Óskarsson, Högni ; Palmer, Ann ; Pull, Charles ; Realo, Anu ; Reisch, Thomas ; Schmidtke, Armin ; Sola, Victor Pérez ; Wittenburg, Lisa ; Hegerl, Ulrich. / Gender issues in suicide rates, trends and methods among youths aged 15-24 in 15 European countries. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2009 ; Vol. 113, No. 3. pp. 216-226.
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