Alterations of the stomach mucosa in response to different adverse effects result in various morphological and clinical symptoms. Gastric mucosa alterations can be classified on the bases of diverse viewpoints. It makes this overview difficult, that identical toxic effects may cause different mucosal changes and different toxic agents may produce similar mucosal appearance. The more accurate understanding of the pathological processes which develop in the stomach mucosa needs reconsideration. The authors make an attempt to define gastritis and gastropathy in order to classify and present their features. Gastritis is a histological definition indicating mucosal inflammation. Acute gastritis is caused by infections. The two most important forms of chronic gastritis are metaplastic atrophic gastritis with an autoimmune origin and Helicobacter pylori inflammation. Gastropathy is the name of different structural alterations of the mucosa. Its most important feature is the paucity of inflammatory signs. Gastropathies can be divided into 4 categories based on the nature of the underlying pathological effect, on its morphological appearance and the way of the development. Differential diagnosis is an important pathological and clinical task because different treatment methods and prognosis.
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