The metabolic syndrome, one of the most common clinical conditions in recent times, represents a combination of cardiometabolic risk determinants, including central obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing worldwide as a consequence of common overnutrition and consequent obesity. Although a unifying picture of the pathomechanism is still missing, the key role of the pre-receptor glucocorticoid activation has emerged recently. Local glucocorticoid activation is catalyzed by a triad composed of glucose-6-phosphatetransporter, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in the endoplasmic reticulum. The elements of this system can be found in various cell types, including adipocytes and hepatocytes. While the contribution of glucocorticoid activation in adipose tissue to the pathomechanism of the metabolic syndrome has been well established, the relative importance of the hepatic process is less understood. This review summarizes the available data on the role of the hepatic triad and its role in the metabolic syndrome, by confronting experimental findings with clinical observations.
- Metabolic syndromeàLiveràGlucocorticoidàGlucose-6-phosphate-transporteràHexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenaseà11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1
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