Further evidence for the role of pregnancy-induced hypertension and other early life influences in the development of ADHD

results from the IDEFICS study

on behalf of the IDEFICS consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate whether in addition to established early risk factors other, less studied pre-, peri-, and postnatal influences, like gestational hypertension or neonatal respiratory disorders and infections, may increase a child’s risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). In the IDEFICS study more than 18,000 children, aged 2–11.9 years, underwent extensive medical examinations supplemented by parental questionnaires on pregnancy and early childhood. The present analyses are restricted to children whose parents also completed a supplementary medical questionnaire (n = 15,577), including the question whether or not the child was ever diagnosed with ADHD. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between early life influences and the risk of ADHD. Our study confirms the well-known association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and a child’s risk of ADHD. In addition, our study showed that children born to mothers younger than 20 years old were 3–4 times more likely to develop ADHD as compared to children born to mothers aged 25 years and older. Moreover, we found that children whose mothers suffered from pregnancy-induced hypertension had an approximately twofold risk of ADHD (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.09–3.48). This also holds true for infections during the first 4 weeks after birth (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.05–4.04). In addition, although not statistically significant, we observed a noticeable elevated risk estimate for neonatal respiratory disorders (OR 1.76; 95% CI 0.91–3.41). Hence, we recommend that these less often studied pre-, peri, and postnatal influences should get more attention when considering early indicators or predictors for ADHD in children. However, special study designs such as genetically sensitive designs may be needed to derive causal conclusions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Mar 3 2017

Fingerprint

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Mothers
Early Life
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Pregnancy
Hypertension
Respiratory Tract Infections
Parents
Logistic Models
Smoking
Parturition

Keywords

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders
  • European children cohort
  • Gestational hypertension
  • Maternal age
  • Neonatal respiratory disorders
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Philosophy
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

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title = "Further evidence for the role of pregnancy-induced hypertension and other early life influences in the development of ADHD: results from the IDEFICS study",
abstract = "The aim of this study is to investigate whether in addition to established early risk factors other, less studied pre-, peri-, and postnatal influences, like gestational hypertension or neonatal respiratory disorders and infections, may increase a child’s risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). In the IDEFICS study more than 18,000 children, aged 2–11.9 years, underwent extensive medical examinations supplemented by parental questionnaires on pregnancy and early childhood. The present analyses are restricted to children whose parents also completed a supplementary medical questionnaire (n = 15,577), including the question whether or not the child was ever diagnosed with ADHD. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between early life influences and the risk of ADHD. Our study confirms the well-known association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and a child’s risk of ADHD. In addition, our study showed that children born to mothers younger than 20 years old were 3–4 times more likely to develop ADHD as compared to children born to mothers aged 25 years and older. Moreover, we found that children whose mothers suffered from pregnancy-induced hypertension had an approximately twofold risk of ADHD (OR 1.95; 95{\%} CI 1.09–3.48). This also holds true for infections during the first 4 weeks after birth (OR 2.06; 95{\%} CI 1.05–4.04). In addition, although not statistically significant, we observed a noticeable elevated risk estimate for neonatal respiratory disorders (OR 1.76; 95{\%} CI 0.91–3.41). Hence, we recommend that these less often studied pre-, peri, and postnatal influences should get more attention when considering early indicators or predictors for ADHD in children. However, special study designs such as genetically sensitive designs may be needed to derive causal conclusions.",
keywords = "Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, European children cohort, Gestational hypertension, Maternal age, Neonatal respiratory disorders, Smoking",
author = "{on behalf of the IDEFICS consortium} and Hermann Pohlabeln and Stefan Rach and {de Henauw}, Stefaan and Gabriele Eiben and Wencke Gwozdz and Charalampos Hadjigeorgiou and D. Moln{\'a}r and Moreno, {Luis A.} and Paola Russo and Toomas Veidebaum and Iris Pigeot",
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journal = "European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry",
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T1 - Further evidence for the role of pregnancy-induced hypertension and other early life influences in the development of ADHD

T2 - results from the IDEFICS study

AU - on behalf of the IDEFICS consortium

AU - Pohlabeln, Hermann

AU - Rach, Stefan

AU - de Henauw, Stefaan

AU - Eiben, Gabriele

AU - Gwozdz, Wencke

AU - Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos

AU - Molnár, D.

AU - Moreno, Luis A.

AU - Russo, Paola

AU - Veidebaum, Toomas

AU - Pigeot, Iris

PY - 2017/3/3

Y1 - 2017/3/3

N2 - The aim of this study is to investigate whether in addition to established early risk factors other, less studied pre-, peri-, and postnatal influences, like gestational hypertension or neonatal respiratory disorders and infections, may increase a child’s risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). In the IDEFICS study more than 18,000 children, aged 2–11.9 years, underwent extensive medical examinations supplemented by parental questionnaires on pregnancy and early childhood. The present analyses are restricted to children whose parents also completed a supplementary medical questionnaire (n = 15,577), including the question whether or not the child was ever diagnosed with ADHD. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between early life influences and the risk of ADHD. Our study confirms the well-known association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and a child’s risk of ADHD. In addition, our study showed that children born to mothers younger than 20 years old were 3–4 times more likely to develop ADHD as compared to children born to mothers aged 25 years and older. Moreover, we found that children whose mothers suffered from pregnancy-induced hypertension had an approximately twofold risk of ADHD (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.09–3.48). This also holds true for infections during the first 4 weeks after birth (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.05–4.04). In addition, although not statistically significant, we observed a noticeable elevated risk estimate for neonatal respiratory disorders (OR 1.76; 95% CI 0.91–3.41). Hence, we recommend that these less often studied pre-, peri, and postnatal influences should get more attention when considering early indicators or predictors for ADHD in children. However, special study designs such as genetically sensitive designs may be needed to derive causal conclusions.

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