During the decades of free radical research, we came ever closer to the knowledge that the free radical-antioxidant balance of the organs is modified fundamentally by the genetic background and surroundings. Janus-face oxygen free radicals are the secunder messengers of signal transduction routes and simultaneously they are cytotoxic agents of cells. The activation of signal transduction proteins by moderate oxidation effects and metal ions is not fairly known yet. The molecular mechanism between activators and inhibitors of signal transduction is controlled in a fine way. The balance of antioxidant-prooxidant levels of the cells can go back to the concentration relation of sulfhydril groups and disulfid bridges. Essential and toxic metal ions and selen can play an important role in the redox homeostasis. Healthy tissues have many antioxidants, hereby they ensure the protection of the organs against free radicals. Alimentary antioxidants such as vitamin A, C and E, polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, isothiocyanates and other bioactive molecules in their natural molecular stucture and derivates are able to influence the redox reactions. In our days more and more molecules from foods, or their metabolites are verified to act on genes based on the results of molecular biological research.
ASJC Scopus subject areas