Frequency and phylogeny of norovirus in diarrheic children in Istanbul, Turkey

A. A. Ozkul, Bekir S. Kocazeybek, Nuri Turan, Gábor Reuter, Kamil Bostan, Aysun Yilmaz, Eda Altan, Gulsah Uyunmaz, Ali Riza Karaköse, Karlo Muratoglu, Murat Elevli, Christopher R. Helps, Huseyin Yilmaz

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Background: Norovirus (NoV) is recognised as one of the most common causes of foodborne infections. Contaminated shellfish, food, water and hospitals are well documented sources of the virus. Objective: NoV in diarrheic children has not previously been investigated in Istanbul, Turkey, hence the aim of this study was to detect and investigate the frequency and phylogeny of human NoV genogroups I and II in children with acute gastroenteritis. Study design: 238 stool samples were collected from diarrheic children from 2 hospitals (Cerrahpasa Medical School and Haseki) in Istanbul and analysed by ELISA, RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR using both SYBR Green and probe-based assays for human NoV. Primers targeting the RNA-polymerase gene were used for RT-PCR to allow DNA sequencing of Turkish NoV strains and phylogenetic analysis to be performed. Results: NoV GII was detected in 36 (15.1%) of 238 samples by SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR, 10.9% by a probe-based real-time RT-PCR and 10.5% by ELISA (Ridascreen). Genogroup II (GII) the Turkish NoVs clustered with including GII4 (72.2%), GII16 (5.5%), GIIb (16.7%) and GIIe (5.5%). Two variants of GII4 (GII4-2006b and GII4-2008), GII16 and recombinant noroviruses (GIIb and GIIe) were identified. Conclusion: This study shows a high frequency and genetic diversity of NoV GII infections in children with acute gastroenteritis in Istanbul, Turkey.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-164
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical Virology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2011


  • Children
  • Istanbul
  • Norovirus
  • Phylogeny
  • Real-time RT-PCR
  • Turkey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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    Ozkul, A. A., Kocazeybek, B. S., Turan, N., Reuter, G., Bostan, K., Yilmaz, A., Altan, E., Uyunmaz, G., Karaköse, A. R., Muratoglu, K., Elevli, M., Helps, C. R., & Yilmaz, H. (2011). Frequency and phylogeny of norovirus in diarrheic children in Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of Clinical Virology, 51(3), 160-164.