Formation and stability of metastable Pd(Zr) solid solution developed during ball milling and/or heat treatment of Pd3Zr

G. L. Katona, M. Kis-Varga, D. Beke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Formation of nanocrystalline solid solution induced by ball milling and/or subsequent annealing of the Pd3Zr intermetallic compound was studied. The single phase initial compound was milled in a medium energy vibrating mill under vacuum for various time periods. The structural characterization was made by X-ray diffraction with monochromatic CuKα1 radiation. After a short milling time (46 h) the Pd3Zr compound transformed to nanocrystalline one without disordering. By annealing this ball milled material, the formation of Pd(Zr) solid solution was observed by X-ray diffraction. During heat treatment at increasing temperatures the phase fraction of Pd(Zr) reached a maximum between 800 and 900 °C, then it decreased and finally the reflections of disordered phase disappeared from XRD spectrum at 1330 °C indicating the return to the single phase ordered state. However, while the above results are in accordance with that of Weissmüller and Ehrhardt [1], we also observed that ball milling of Pd3Zr for longer periods resulted in direct transformation of increasing fraction of the ordered phase to nanocrystalline Pd(Zr) solid solution. The amount of this phase increased with milling time and with annealing temperature, and the disordered state proved to be metastable even at high temperatures. The stabilization of solid solution phase is explained by the segregation at grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline material and by oxidation at interfaces/grain boundaries during the preparation and annealing processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-198
Number of pages6
JournalMaterials Science Forum
Volume386-388
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Fingerprint

Ball milling
balls
Solid solutions
heat treatment
solid solutions
Heat treatment
Annealing
annealing
Grain boundaries
grain boundaries
monochromatic radiation
Nanocrystalline materials
X ray diffraction
diffraction
Temperature
Intermetallics
intermetallics
nanocrystals
x rays
Stabilization

Keywords

  • Ball milling
  • Heat treatment
  • Order-disorder transition
  • Segregation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Formation and stability of metastable Pd(Zr) solid solution developed during ball milling and/or heat treatment of Pd3Zr. / Katona, G. L.; Kis-Varga, M.; Beke, D.

In: Materials Science Forum, Vol. 386-388, 2002, p. 193-198.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{4268571cc3684e58a6f039224e5a1b8c,
title = "Formation and stability of metastable Pd(Zr) solid solution developed during ball milling and/or heat treatment of Pd3Zr",
abstract = "Formation of nanocrystalline solid solution induced by ball milling and/or subsequent annealing of the Pd3Zr intermetallic compound was studied. The single phase initial compound was milled in a medium energy vibrating mill under vacuum for various time periods. The structural characterization was made by X-ray diffraction with monochromatic CuKα1 radiation. After a short milling time (46 h) the Pd3Zr compound transformed to nanocrystalline one without disordering. By annealing this ball milled material, the formation of Pd(Zr) solid solution was observed by X-ray diffraction. During heat treatment at increasing temperatures the phase fraction of Pd(Zr) reached a maximum between 800 and 900 °C, then it decreased and finally the reflections of disordered phase disappeared from XRD spectrum at 1330 °C indicating the return to the single phase ordered state. However, while the above results are in accordance with that of Weissm{\"u}ller and Ehrhardt [1], we also observed that ball milling of Pd3Zr for longer periods resulted in direct transformation of increasing fraction of the ordered phase to nanocrystalline Pd(Zr) solid solution. The amount of this phase increased with milling time and with annealing temperature, and the disordered state proved to be metastable even at high temperatures. The stabilization of solid solution phase is explained by the segregation at grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline material and by oxidation at interfaces/grain boundaries during the preparation and annealing processes.",
keywords = "Ball milling, Heat treatment, Order-disorder transition, Segregation",
author = "Katona, {G. L.} and M. Kis-Varga and D. Beke",
year = "2002",
language = "English",
volume = "386-388",
pages = "193--198",
journal = "Materials Science Forum",
issn = "0255-5476",
publisher = "Trans Tech Publications",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Formation and stability of metastable Pd(Zr) solid solution developed during ball milling and/or heat treatment of Pd3Zr

AU - Katona, G. L.

AU - Kis-Varga, M.

AU - Beke, D.

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Formation of nanocrystalline solid solution induced by ball milling and/or subsequent annealing of the Pd3Zr intermetallic compound was studied. The single phase initial compound was milled in a medium energy vibrating mill under vacuum for various time periods. The structural characterization was made by X-ray diffraction with monochromatic CuKα1 radiation. After a short milling time (46 h) the Pd3Zr compound transformed to nanocrystalline one without disordering. By annealing this ball milled material, the formation of Pd(Zr) solid solution was observed by X-ray diffraction. During heat treatment at increasing temperatures the phase fraction of Pd(Zr) reached a maximum between 800 and 900 °C, then it decreased and finally the reflections of disordered phase disappeared from XRD spectrum at 1330 °C indicating the return to the single phase ordered state. However, while the above results are in accordance with that of Weissmüller and Ehrhardt [1], we also observed that ball milling of Pd3Zr for longer periods resulted in direct transformation of increasing fraction of the ordered phase to nanocrystalline Pd(Zr) solid solution. The amount of this phase increased with milling time and with annealing temperature, and the disordered state proved to be metastable even at high temperatures. The stabilization of solid solution phase is explained by the segregation at grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline material and by oxidation at interfaces/grain boundaries during the preparation and annealing processes.

AB - Formation of nanocrystalline solid solution induced by ball milling and/or subsequent annealing of the Pd3Zr intermetallic compound was studied. The single phase initial compound was milled in a medium energy vibrating mill under vacuum for various time periods. The structural characterization was made by X-ray diffraction with monochromatic CuKα1 radiation. After a short milling time (46 h) the Pd3Zr compound transformed to nanocrystalline one without disordering. By annealing this ball milled material, the formation of Pd(Zr) solid solution was observed by X-ray diffraction. During heat treatment at increasing temperatures the phase fraction of Pd(Zr) reached a maximum between 800 and 900 °C, then it decreased and finally the reflections of disordered phase disappeared from XRD spectrum at 1330 °C indicating the return to the single phase ordered state. However, while the above results are in accordance with that of Weissmüller and Ehrhardt [1], we also observed that ball milling of Pd3Zr for longer periods resulted in direct transformation of increasing fraction of the ordered phase to nanocrystalline Pd(Zr) solid solution. The amount of this phase increased with milling time and with annealing temperature, and the disordered state proved to be metastable even at high temperatures. The stabilization of solid solution phase is explained by the segregation at grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline material and by oxidation at interfaces/grain boundaries during the preparation and annealing processes.

KW - Ball milling

KW - Heat treatment

KW - Order-disorder transition

KW - Segregation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036171978&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036171978&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 386-388

SP - 193

EP - 198

JO - Materials Science Forum

JF - Materials Science Forum

SN - 0255-5476

ER -