Objectives: To identify prognostic factors which predict the outcome 2 years after TLE surgery in those patients who were not seizure-free at the 6-month postoperative examination. Methods: We included 86 postoperative TLE patients who had undergone presurgical evaluation, including video-EEG and high-resolution MRI, and who had seizures between the second and sixth postoperative months. Results: 32% of patients were seizure-free in the second postoperative year. We found that normal MRI findings and secondarily generalized seizures (SGTCS) preoperatively were associated with a non-seizure-free outcome, while rare postoperative seizures and ipsilateral temporal IED with seizure-free outcome. Newly administered levetiracetam showed a significant positive effect on the postoperative outcome independent of other prognostic factors. Five of seven patients who received levetiracetam became seizure-free (p = 0.006). Conclusion: One-third of patients who did not become seizure-free immediately after surgery, eventually achieved long-term seizure freedom. We suggest watching for long-term seizure freedom after failed epilepsy surgery especially in patients who had rare postoperative seizures, focal MRI abnormality, ipsilateral temporal spikes, or no SGTCS preoperatively. Levetiracetam may have a positive effect on postsurgical seizures.
- Generalized tonic-clonic seizures
- Interictal epileptiform discharges
- Prognosis of epilepsy surgery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology