Factor XIII: A coagulation factor with multiple plasmatic and cellular functions

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Abstract

Factor XIII (FXIII) is unique among clotting factors for a number of reasons: 1) it is a protransglutaminase, which becomes activated in the last stage of coagulation; 2) it works on an insoluble substrate; 3) its potentially active subunit is also present in the cytoplasm of platelets, monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, dendritic cells, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes; and 4) in addition to its contribution to hemostasis, it has multiple extra-and intracellular functions. This review gives a general overview on the structure and activation of FXIII as well as on the biochemical function and downregulation of activated FXIII with emphasis on new developments in the last decade. New aspects of the traditional functions of FXIII, stabilization of fibrin clot, and protection of fibrin against fibrinolysis are summarized. The role of FXIII in maintaining pregnancy, its contribution to the wound healing process, and its proangiogenic function are reviewed in details. Special attention is given to new, less explored, but promising fields of FXIII research that include inhibition of vascular permeability, cardioprotection, and its role in cartilage and bone development. FXIII is also considered as an intracellular enzyme; a separate section is devoted to its intracellular activation, intracellular action, and involvement in platelet, monocyte/macrophage, and dendritic cell functions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)931-972
Number of pages42
JournalPhysiological Reviews
Volume91
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2011

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Factor XIII
Fibrin
Dendritic Cells
Monocytes
Blood Platelets
Macrophages
Factor XIIIa
Osteocytes
Blood Coagulation Factors
Bone Development
Capillary Permeability
Fibrinolysis
Chondrocytes
Hemostasis
Osteoblasts
Wound Healing
Cartilage
Cytoplasm
Down-Regulation
Pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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abstract = "Factor XIII (FXIII) is unique among clotting factors for a number of reasons: 1) it is a protransglutaminase, which becomes activated in the last stage of coagulation; 2) it works on an insoluble substrate; 3) its potentially active subunit is also present in the cytoplasm of platelets, monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, dendritic cells, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes; and 4) in addition to its contribution to hemostasis, it has multiple extra-and intracellular functions. This review gives a general overview on the structure and activation of FXIII as well as on the biochemical function and downregulation of activated FXIII with emphasis on new developments in the last decade. New aspects of the traditional functions of FXIII, stabilization of fibrin clot, and protection of fibrin against fibrinolysis are summarized. The role of FXIII in maintaining pregnancy, its contribution to the wound healing process, and its proangiogenic function are reviewed in details. Special attention is given to new, less explored, but promising fields of FXIII research that include inhibition of vascular permeability, cardioprotection, and its role in cartilage and bone development. FXIII is also considered as an intracellular enzyme; a separate section is devoted to its intracellular activation, intracellular action, and involvement in platelet, monocyte/macrophage, and dendritic cell functions.",
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