Extraction of cardamom oil by supercritical carbon dioxide and sub-critical propane

Samer Hamdan, Hussein G. Daood, Marianna Toth-Markus, Vendel Illés

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Supercritical CO2 and sub-critical propane extraction conditions on quality attributes of cardamom oil were studied. The yield and solvent extractability were examined as a function of extraction conditions such as temperature, pressure and solvent/solid ratio. Of the quality components of the recovered oil, pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), volatile constituents, fatty acids and tocopherols, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Cardamom was found easy-to-extract by fluid CO2 even at sub-critical conditions with very cost-effective ratio of solvent/solid. However, the maximum level of natural pigments and antioxidants achieved was found in extracts recovered by supercritical fluid CO2 and sub-critical propane. Addition of ethanol to CO2 up to 25% did not improve the extractability of fatty acids, but had negative effect on aroma profile and positively affected the natural pigment of the extract. Propane was found to be more capable than CO2 to recover seed oil at sub-critical conditions with lower ratio of solvent/solid and better quality attributes. Supercritical fluid extraction conditions affected to some extent fatty acid composition and content of volatiles in the recovered extracts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-30
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Supercritical Fluids
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2008



  • Cardamom
  • Carotenoids
  • Chlorophylls
  • Fatty acids
  • Supercritical fluid extraction
  • Volatile

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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