Aims: To assess the expression of the following cell cycle regulatory proteins in primary metastatic breast carcinomas (MBCs) and on availability in matched distant metastases (DMs): Ki67, cyclin A, geminin and aurora-kinase A (aurkA); and to compare the expression of these markers in early MBC (EMBC) and late MBC separated into groups according to median time point on metastatic event occurred (28 months). Methods: The expression of the above mentioned markers was analysed in a total of 47 primary MBCs and 59 DMs (out of which 37 were pairs) by immunohistochemistry. Fourteen breast carcinomas with no relapse over a 10-year follow-up period were utilised as control cases (CBC). Results: Among the MBCs, 22 metastasised to the bone, 4 to the lung and 21 to the central nervous system (CNS). Geminin (p<0.001) and Ki67 (p=0.001) were increased in the MBCs while aurkA and cyclin A showed no difference when compared with CBCs. There were no differences between aurkA, cyclin A and geminin expression in MBCs and DMs in general. Expression of Ki67 was, however, elevated (p=0.027) in DMs. In CNS metastases all markers showed elevated expression as compared to MBCs. In bone metastases, geminin was lower (p<0.001) compared with primary MBCs. In the metastases of the lung, the evaluated markers did not show different expression. According to the median follow-up until the metastatic event, Ki67 was found to be significantly elevated in EMBC (p=0.018). Conclusions: Ki67 index and geminin distinguish a fraction of MBC with worse prognosis, showing increased levels in the latter in comparison to CBC being tumour-free over a 10-year follow-up period. Ki67 could possibly identify a group of MBCs that develop early DMs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine