Expression of membrane-bound (mb) and soluble (s) forms of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been measured by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay in cultured human brain microvessel endothelial cells. Both the mb and the s forms of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were upregulated by TNF-α; however, the stimulation of the s forms was delayed in time. When piracetam, a neuroprotective drug, was added to the tissue culture medium simultaneously with TNF-α, the expression of mbVCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was lowered. Differential upregulation of mb and s forms of adhesion molecules and a novel effect of piracetam have been demonstrated in human brain microvessel endothelial cell cultures.
- Adhesion molecules
- Human brain microvessel endothelium
- Tumor necrosis factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Cell Biology