Exploiting the therapeutic potential of endogenous immunomodulatory systems in multiple sclerosis— special focus on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and the kynurenines

Bernadett Fakan, Levente Szalardy, L. Vécsei

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) demyelination attributable to a disturbed balance between encephalitic T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) and immunomodulatory regulatory T cell (Treg) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and an alternatively activated macrophage (M2) excess. Endogenous molecular systems regulating these inflammatory processes have recently been investigated to identify molecules that can potentially influence the course of the disease. These include the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), PPARγ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), and kynurenine pathway metabolites. Although all PPARs ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), recent evidence suggests that PPARα, PPARβ/δ agonists have less pronounced immunomodulatory effects and, along with PGC-1α, are not biomarkers of neuroinflammation in contrast to PPARγ. Small clinical trials with PPARγ agonists have been published with positive results. Proposed as immunomodulatory and neuroprotective, the therapeutic use of PGC-1α activation needs to be assessed in EAE/MS. The activation of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism, plays crucial immunomodulatory roles. Indeed, Trp metabolites have therapeutic relevance in EAE and drugs with structural analogy to kynurenines, such as teriflunomide, are already approved for MS. Further studies are required to gain deeper knowledge of such endogenous immunomodulatory pathways with potential therapeutic implications in MS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number426
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume20
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2 2019

Fingerprint

Kynurenine
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
Multiple Sclerosis
Autoimmune Experimental Encephalomyelitis
metabolites
tryptophan
Metabolites
Tryptophan
Therapeutics
Chemical activation
activation
Neurodegenerative diseases
Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase
Th2 Cells
central nervous system
macrophages
T-cells
Macrophages
biomarkers
Neurology

Keywords

  • Kynurenines
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
  • PGC-1α
  • PPAR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "Exploiting the therapeutic potential of endogenous immunomodulatory systems in multiple sclerosis— special focus on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and the kynurenines",
abstract = "Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) demyelination attributable to a disturbed balance between encephalitic T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) and immunomodulatory regulatory T cell (Treg) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and an alternatively activated macrophage (M2) excess. Endogenous molecular systems regulating these inflammatory processes have recently been investigated to identify molecules that can potentially influence the course of the disease. These include the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), PPARγ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), and kynurenine pathway metabolites. Although all PPARs ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), recent evidence suggests that PPARα, PPARβ/δ agonists have less pronounced immunomodulatory effects and, along with PGC-1α, are not biomarkers of neuroinflammation in contrast to PPARγ. Small clinical trials with PPARγ agonists have been published with positive results. Proposed as immunomodulatory and neuroprotective, the therapeutic use of PGC-1α activation needs to be assessed in EAE/MS. The activation of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism, plays crucial immunomodulatory roles. Indeed, Trp metabolites have therapeutic relevance in EAE and drugs with structural analogy to kynurenines, such as teriflunomide, are already approved for MS. Further studies are required to gain deeper knowledge of such endogenous immunomodulatory pathways with potential therapeutic implications in MS.",
keywords = "Kynurenines, Multiple sclerosis, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PGC-1α, PPAR",
author = "Bernadett Fakan and Levente Szalardy and L. V{\'e}csei",
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T1 - Exploiting the therapeutic potential of endogenous immunomodulatory systems in multiple sclerosis— special focus on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and the kynurenines

AU - Fakan, Bernadett

AU - Szalardy, Levente

AU - Vécsei, L.

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N2 - Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) demyelination attributable to a disturbed balance between encephalitic T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) and immunomodulatory regulatory T cell (Treg) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and an alternatively activated macrophage (M2) excess. Endogenous molecular systems regulating these inflammatory processes have recently been investigated to identify molecules that can potentially influence the course of the disease. These include the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), PPARγ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), and kynurenine pathway metabolites. Although all PPARs ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), recent evidence suggests that PPARα, PPARβ/δ agonists have less pronounced immunomodulatory effects and, along with PGC-1α, are not biomarkers of neuroinflammation in contrast to PPARγ. Small clinical trials with PPARγ agonists have been published with positive results. Proposed as immunomodulatory and neuroprotective, the therapeutic use of PGC-1α activation needs to be assessed in EAE/MS. The activation of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism, plays crucial immunomodulatory roles. Indeed, Trp metabolites have therapeutic relevance in EAE and drugs with structural analogy to kynurenines, such as teriflunomide, are already approved for MS. Further studies are required to gain deeper knowledge of such endogenous immunomodulatory pathways with potential therapeutic implications in MS.

AB - Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) demyelination attributable to a disturbed balance between encephalitic T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) and immunomodulatory regulatory T cell (Treg) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and an alternatively activated macrophage (M2) excess. Endogenous molecular systems regulating these inflammatory processes have recently been investigated to identify molecules that can potentially influence the course of the disease. These include the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), PPARγ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), and kynurenine pathway metabolites. Although all PPARs ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), recent evidence suggests that PPARα, PPARβ/δ agonists have less pronounced immunomodulatory effects and, along with PGC-1α, are not biomarkers of neuroinflammation in contrast to PPARγ. Small clinical trials with PPARγ agonists have been published with positive results. Proposed as immunomodulatory and neuroprotective, the therapeutic use of PGC-1α activation needs to be assessed in EAE/MS. The activation of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism, plays crucial immunomodulatory roles. Indeed, Trp metabolites have therapeutic relevance in EAE and drugs with structural analogy to kynurenines, such as teriflunomide, are already approved for MS. Further studies are required to gain deeper knowledge of such endogenous immunomodulatory pathways with potential therapeutic implications in MS.

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