Exogenous Ketones Lower Blood Glucose Level in Rested and Exercised Rodent Models

Csilla Ari, Cem Murdun, Andrew P. Koutnik, Craig R. Goldhagen, Christopher Rogers, Collin Park, Sahil Bharwani, David M. Diamond, Mark S. Kindy, Dominic P. D'Agostino, Z. Kovács

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Diseases involving inflammation and oxidative stress can be exacerbated by high blood glucose levels. Due to tight metabolic regulation, safely reducing blood glucose can prove difficult. The ketogenic diet (KD) reduces absolute glucose and insulin, while increasing fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and circulating levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone. Compliance to KD can be difficult, so alternative therapies that help reduce glucose levels are needed. Exogenous ketones provide an alternative method to elevate blood ketone levels without strict dietary requirements. In this study, we tested the changes in blood glucose and ketone (βHB) levels in response to acute, sub-chronic, and chronic administration of various ketogenic compounds in either a post-exercise or rested state. WAG/Rij (WR) rats, a rodent model of human absence epilepsy, GLUT1 deficiency syndrome mice (GLUT1D), and wild type Sprague Dawley rats (SPD) were assessed. Non-pathological animals were also assessed across different age ranges. Experimental groups included KD, standard diet (SD) supplemented with water (Control, C) or with exogenous ketones: 1, 3-butanediol (BD), βHB mineral salt (KS), KS with medium chain triglyceride/MCT (KSMCT), BD acetoacetate diester (KE), KE with MCT (KEMCT), and KE with KS (KEKS). In rested WR rats, the KE, KS, KSMCT groups had lower blood glucose level after 1 h of treatment, and in KE and KSMCT groups after 24 h. After exercise, the KE, KSMCT, KEKS, and KEMCT groups had lowered glucose levels after 1 h, and in the KEKS and KEMCT groups after 7 days, compared to control. In GLUT1D mice without exercise, only KE resulted in significantly lower glucose levels at week 2 and week 6 during a 10 weeks long chronic feeding study. In 4-month and 1-year-old SPD rats in the post-exercise trials, blood glucose was significantly lower in KD and KE, and in KEMCT groups, respectively. After seven days, the KSMCT group had the most significantly reduced blood glucose levels, compared to control. These results indicate that exogenous ketones were efficacious in reducing blood glucose levels within and outside the context of exercise in various rodent models of different ages, with and without pathology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2019

Fingerprint

ketones
Ketones
blood glucose
medium chain triacylglycerols
Blood Glucose
Rodentia
Ketogenic Diet
rodents
Triglycerides
exercise
rats
Hydroxybutyrates
butanediol
Glucose
glucose
Sprague Dawley Rats
mice
Butylene Glycols
Absence Epilepsy
Nutritional Requirements

Keywords

  • blood glucose
  • blood ketone
  • exercise
  • exogenous ketone supplements
  • ketogenic diet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Ari, C., Murdun, C., Koutnik, A. P., Goldhagen, C. R., Rogers, C., Park, C., ... Kovács, Z. (2019). Exogenous Ketones Lower Blood Glucose Level in Rested and Exercised Rodent Models. Nutrients, 11(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102330

Exogenous Ketones Lower Blood Glucose Level in Rested and Exercised Rodent Models. / Ari, Csilla; Murdun, Cem; Koutnik, Andrew P.; Goldhagen, Craig R.; Rogers, Christopher; Park, Collin; Bharwani, Sahil; Diamond, David M.; Kindy, Mark S.; D'Agostino, Dominic P.; Kovács, Z.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 11, No. 10, 01.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ari, C, Murdun, C, Koutnik, AP, Goldhagen, CR, Rogers, C, Park, C, Bharwani, S, Diamond, DM, Kindy, MS, D'Agostino, DP & Kovács, Z 2019, 'Exogenous Ketones Lower Blood Glucose Level in Rested and Exercised Rodent Models', Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102330
Ari C, Murdun C, Koutnik AP, Goldhagen CR, Rogers C, Park C et al. Exogenous Ketones Lower Blood Glucose Level in Rested and Exercised Rodent Models. Nutrients. 2019 Oct 1;11(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102330
Ari, Csilla ; Murdun, Cem ; Koutnik, Andrew P. ; Goldhagen, Craig R. ; Rogers, Christopher ; Park, Collin ; Bharwani, Sahil ; Diamond, David M. ; Kindy, Mark S. ; D'Agostino, Dominic P. ; Kovács, Z. / Exogenous Ketones Lower Blood Glucose Level in Rested and Exercised Rodent Models. In: Nutrients. 2019 ; Vol. 11, No. 10.
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