Exercise enhances vasorelaxation in experimental obesity associated hypertension

Pertti Arvola, Xiumin Wu, Mika Kähönen, Heikki Mäkynen, Asko Riutta, I. Muchá, Tiina Solakivi, Heikki Kainulainen, Ilkka Pörsti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Regular exercise is recommended for the non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension, but the mechanisms underlying the lowering of blood pressure remain controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of 22-week-long training on blood pressure, arterial reactivity, and metabolic abnormalities in a model of genetic obesity and moderate hypertension. Methods: Obese and lean Zucker rats were subjected to treadmill exercise from 8 to 30 weeks of age. Blood pressures were measured by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected in metabolic cages. At the end of the study, the samples for biochemical determinations were taken, and reactivity of isolated mesenteric and carotid arterial rings was examined in standard organ chambers. Results: The exercise prevented the elevation of blood pressure which was observed in non-exercised obese Zucker rats, and also reduced blood pressure in the lean rats. The relaxations of norepinephrine-preconstricted mesenteric and carotid arterial rings to acetylcholine and nitroprusside were clearly improved by exercise in the obese rats. In the lean rats exercise enhanced vasorelaxation to nitroprusside in the mesenteric and carotid rings, and to acetylcholine in the carotid preparations. The exercise-induced improvement of endothelium-mediated dilatation to acetylcholine was abolished by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, but not by cyclooxygenase inhibition with diclofenac or functional inhibition of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization by precontractions with KCl. The urinary excretion of the systemic prostacyclin metabolite (2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F(1α)) was increased two-fold by exercise in the obese and lean rats, whereas that of the thromboxane A2 metabolite (11-dehydrothromboxane B2) remained unaffected. Treadmill training reduced blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, but did not affect the high levels of insulin in obese Zucker rats. Conclusions: These results suggest that the antihypertensive effect of long-term exercise in experimental obesity related hypertension is associated with improved vasodilatation. This is expressed as enhanced relaxation via endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide, and increased endothelial prostacyclin production. The improved control of arterial tone after training could be attributed to the alleviation of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, whereas hyperinsulinaemia per se remained unaffected. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)992-1002
Number of pages11
JournalCardiovascular Research
Volume43
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1999

Fingerprint

Zucker Rats
Vasodilation
Obesity
Acetylcholine
Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Nitroprusside
Epoprostenol
Endothelium
Nitric Oxide
Thromboxane A2
Diclofenac
Genetic Models
NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
Hyperinsulinism
Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
Hyperlipidemias
Antihypertensive Agents
Insulin Resistance
Blood Glucose

Keywords

  • Endothelial factors
  • Exercise
  • Hypertension
  • Nitric oxide
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Exercise enhances vasorelaxation in experimental obesity associated hypertension. / Arvola, Pertti; Wu, Xiumin; Kähönen, Mika; Mäkynen, Heikki; Riutta, Asko; Muchá, I.; Solakivi, Tiina; Kainulainen, Heikki; Pörsti, Ilkka.

In: Cardiovascular Research, Vol. 43, No. 4, 09.1999, p. 992-1002.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arvola, P, Wu, X, Kähönen, M, Mäkynen, H, Riutta, A, Muchá, I, Solakivi, T, Kainulainen, H & Pörsti, I 1999, 'Exercise enhances vasorelaxation in experimental obesity associated hypertension', Cardiovascular Research, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 992-1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6363(99)00141-8
Arvola, Pertti ; Wu, Xiumin ; Kähönen, Mika ; Mäkynen, Heikki ; Riutta, Asko ; Muchá, I. ; Solakivi, Tiina ; Kainulainen, Heikki ; Pörsti, Ilkka. / Exercise enhances vasorelaxation in experimental obesity associated hypertension. In: Cardiovascular Research. 1999 ; Vol. 43, No. 4. pp. 992-1002.
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AU - Kähönen, Mika

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AU - Riutta, Asko

AU - Muchá, I.

AU - Solakivi, Tiina

AU - Kainulainen, Heikki

AU - Pörsti, Ilkka

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N2 - Objective: Regular exercise is recommended for the non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension, but the mechanisms underlying the lowering of blood pressure remain controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of 22-week-long training on blood pressure, arterial reactivity, and metabolic abnormalities in a model of genetic obesity and moderate hypertension. Methods: Obese and lean Zucker rats were subjected to treadmill exercise from 8 to 30 weeks of age. Blood pressures were measured by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected in metabolic cages. At the end of the study, the samples for biochemical determinations were taken, and reactivity of isolated mesenteric and carotid arterial rings was examined in standard organ chambers. Results: The exercise prevented the elevation of blood pressure which was observed in non-exercised obese Zucker rats, and also reduced blood pressure in the lean rats. The relaxations of norepinephrine-preconstricted mesenteric and carotid arterial rings to acetylcholine and nitroprusside were clearly improved by exercise in the obese rats. In the lean rats exercise enhanced vasorelaxation to nitroprusside in the mesenteric and carotid rings, and to acetylcholine in the carotid preparations. The exercise-induced improvement of endothelium-mediated dilatation to acetylcholine was abolished by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, but not by cyclooxygenase inhibition with diclofenac or functional inhibition of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization by precontractions with KCl. The urinary excretion of the systemic prostacyclin metabolite (2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F(1α)) was increased two-fold by exercise in the obese and lean rats, whereas that of the thromboxane A2 metabolite (11-dehydrothromboxane B2) remained unaffected. Treadmill training reduced blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, but did not affect the high levels of insulin in obese Zucker rats. Conclusions: These results suggest that the antihypertensive effect of long-term exercise in experimental obesity related hypertension is associated with improved vasodilatation. This is expressed as enhanced relaxation via endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide, and increased endothelial prostacyclin production. The improved control of arterial tone after training could be attributed to the alleviation of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, whereas hyperinsulinaemia per se remained unaffected. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

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KW - Endothelial factors

KW - Exercise

KW - Hypertension

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