Geomorfológiai felszínek képzödése a lepusztulás, a felhalmozódás és a lemeztektonika tér-és idöbeni változásának hatására (A Dunántúli-középhegység felszínformálódásának modellje)

Translated title of the contribution: Evolution of geomorphological surfaces of planation controlled by plate tectonic, erosion and accumulation cycles: A model for the geomorphic evolution of the Transdanubian Mountains (Hungary)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In the Transdanubian Mountains the Mesozoic horst with bauxite-bearing ancient tropical karst found overlain by thin Upper Cretaceous or Eocene sediments are regarded remains of the Cretaceous etchplain (Fig. 3). According to their orographic position these semi-buried horsts may occur in uplifted position (summit level) and as lower steps i.e. in threshold position as well. These fundamental morphogenetic surfaces already existed in the Cretaceous and no considerable changes occurred during the subsequent repeated exhumation accompanying their uplift. It is widespread that the ancient etchplain characterised by tropical tower karst and red-clay bauxite is superimposed by Oligocene sandstone lying conformably (Fig. 4). - It is also frequent that during exhumation only the Tertiary sedimentary cover was eroded from the horst etchplained in the Cretaceous and buried in the Tertiary, thus the exhumed ancient etchplain represents the geomorphological surface. - There are horsts in great number covered by Eocene and Oligocene clastic rocks, on the ancient surface of which sediment movement caused not only smoothing but also considerable change in surface forms. In this case the horst is qualified as a younger reworked e.g. Oligocene geomorphic surface. - Sometimes it is difficult to date the transformation of the exhumed horsts. The starting point may be that the surface of horsts had already been planated in the Cretaceous, the surface of those in lower position changed slightly during the Tertiary, i.e. it is inherited. The uncovered horsts of morphologically higher position underwent pediplanation during the Paleogene and became pedimented along their margins during the Neogene. - The horsts etchplained in the Cretaceous then buried, semi-exhumed and becoming uncovered may occur at different altitudes (Fig. 5). Some types can be found e.g. at the same elevation beside each other within the mountain block. It is also frequent that the planated horsts covered by Oligocene sandstone range steplike one above the other. These surfaces at different altitudes do not represent geomorphological levels of different ages. - Along the mountain margins the Neogene marine terraces usually represent younger geomorphological surfaces than the uplifted and exhumed horst surfaces. Nevertheless it is frequently encountered that the Pannonian marine formations overlie horsts uplifted to 400 to 500 m height which were buried in the Paleogene. Elsewhere the Upper Pannonian travertine overlies the surface of the ancient Mesozoic geomorphic surface (Balaton Highland, at ca 300 m a.s.l.). Along the mountain margins of horsts the Late Cenozoic geomorphic surfaces (marine terraces, pediments, river terraces) were preserved by the hard cover of travertines from the subsequent erosion. Travertines were formed by karst springs on the base level. In the Transdanubian Mountains altogether 12 Neogene and Quaternary geomorphic surfaces were preserved by travertines. This phenomenon is characteristic of the mountain margins and of some larger valleys. On the valley-side terraces a lower sequence of travertines is deposited (between 120 and 250 m a.s.l.). The higher situated sequences of travertine covers the pediments and marine terraces. To determine their age, fauna remnants, paleomagnetic and absolute chronological data are available.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)33-48
Number of pages16
JournalHungarian Geographical Bulletin
Volume50
Issue number1-4
Publication statusPublished - 2001

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planation
horst
plate tectonics
Hungary
erosion
mountain
travertine
river
Cretaceous
terrace
Oligocene
Neogene
karst
pediment
bauxite
exhumation
Paleogene
Eocene
sandstone
valley

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Geography, Planning and Development

Cite this

@article{4a60366a167142eb80edbcbab75aaa9d,
title = "Geomorfol{\'o}giai felsz{\'i}nek k{\'e}pz{\"o}d{\'e}se a lepusztul{\'a}s, a felhalmoz{\'o}d{\'a}s {\'e}s a lemeztektonika t{\'e}r-{\'e}s id{\"o}beni v{\'a}ltoz{\'a}s{\'a}nak hat{\'a}s{\'a}ra (A Dun{\'a}nt{\'u}li-k{\"o}z{\'e}phegys{\'e}g felsz{\'i}nform{\'a}l{\'o}d{\'a}s{\'a}nak modellje)",
abstract = "In the Transdanubian Mountains the Mesozoic horst with bauxite-bearing ancient tropical karst found overlain by thin Upper Cretaceous or Eocene sediments are regarded remains of the Cretaceous etchplain (Fig. 3). According to their orographic position these semi-buried horsts may occur in uplifted position (summit level) and as lower steps i.e. in threshold position as well. These fundamental morphogenetic surfaces already existed in the Cretaceous and no considerable changes occurred during the subsequent repeated exhumation accompanying their uplift. It is widespread that the ancient etchplain characterised by tropical tower karst and red-clay bauxite is superimposed by Oligocene sandstone lying conformably (Fig. 4). - It is also frequent that during exhumation only the Tertiary sedimentary cover was eroded from the horst etchplained in the Cretaceous and buried in the Tertiary, thus the exhumed ancient etchplain represents the geomorphological surface. - There are horsts in great number covered by Eocene and Oligocene clastic rocks, on the ancient surface of which sediment movement caused not only smoothing but also considerable change in surface forms. In this case the horst is qualified as a younger reworked e.g. Oligocene geomorphic surface. - Sometimes it is difficult to date the transformation of the exhumed horsts. The starting point may be that the surface of horsts had already been planated in the Cretaceous, the surface of those in lower position changed slightly during the Tertiary, i.e. it is inherited. The uncovered horsts of morphologically higher position underwent pediplanation during the Paleogene and became pedimented along their margins during the Neogene. - The horsts etchplained in the Cretaceous then buried, semi-exhumed and becoming uncovered may occur at different altitudes (Fig. 5). Some types can be found e.g. at the same elevation beside each other within the mountain block. It is also frequent that the planated horsts covered by Oligocene sandstone range steplike one above the other. These surfaces at different altitudes do not represent geomorphological levels of different ages. - Along the mountain margins the Neogene marine terraces usually represent younger geomorphological surfaces than the uplifted and exhumed horst surfaces. Nevertheless it is frequently encountered that the Pannonian marine formations overlie horsts uplifted to 400 to 500 m height which were buried in the Paleogene. Elsewhere the Upper Pannonian travertine overlies the surface of the ancient Mesozoic geomorphic surface (Balaton Highland, at ca 300 m a.s.l.). Along the mountain margins of horsts the Late Cenozoic geomorphic surfaces (marine terraces, pediments, river terraces) were preserved by the hard cover of travertines from the subsequent erosion. Travertines were formed by karst springs on the base level. In the Transdanubian Mountains altogether 12 Neogene and Quaternary geomorphic surfaces were preserved by travertines. This phenomenon is characteristic of the mountain margins and of some larger valleys. On the valley-side terraces a lower sequence of travertines is deposited (between 120 and 250 m a.s.l.). The higher situated sequences of travertine covers the pediments and marine terraces. To determine their age, fauna remnants, paleomagnetic and absolute chronological data are available.",
author = "P. M{\'a}rton",
year = "2001",
language = "Hungarian",
volume = "50",
pages = "33--48",
journal = "Hungarian Geographical Bulletin",
issn = "2064-5031",
publisher = "Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Geographical Research Institute",
number = "1-4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Geomorfológiai felszínek képzödése a lepusztulás, a felhalmozódás és a lemeztektonika tér-és idöbeni változásának hatására (A Dunántúli-középhegység felszínformálódásának modellje)

AU - Márton, P.

PY - 2001

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N2 - In the Transdanubian Mountains the Mesozoic horst with bauxite-bearing ancient tropical karst found overlain by thin Upper Cretaceous or Eocene sediments are regarded remains of the Cretaceous etchplain (Fig. 3). According to their orographic position these semi-buried horsts may occur in uplifted position (summit level) and as lower steps i.e. in threshold position as well. These fundamental morphogenetic surfaces already existed in the Cretaceous and no considerable changes occurred during the subsequent repeated exhumation accompanying their uplift. It is widespread that the ancient etchplain characterised by tropical tower karst and red-clay bauxite is superimposed by Oligocene sandstone lying conformably (Fig. 4). - It is also frequent that during exhumation only the Tertiary sedimentary cover was eroded from the horst etchplained in the Cretaceous and buried in the Tertiary, thus the exhumed ancient etchplain represents the geomorphological surface. - There are horsts in great number covered by Eocene and Oligocene clastic rocks, on the ancient surface of which sediment movement caused not only smoothing but also considerable change in surface forms. In this case the horst is qualified as a younger reworked e.g. Oligocene geomorphic surface. - Sometimes it is difficult to date the transformation of the exhumed horsts. The starting point may be that the surface of horsts had already been planated in the Cretaceous, the surface of those in lower position changed slightly during the Tertiary, i.e. it is inherited. The uncovered horsts of morphologically higher position underwent pediplanation during the Paleogene and became pedimented along their margins during the Neogene. - The horsts etchplained in the Cretaceous then buried, semi-exhumed and becoming uncovered may occur at different altitudes (Fig. 5). Some types can be found e.g. at the same elevation beside each other within the mountain block. It is also frequent that the planated horsts covered by Oligocene sandstone range steplike one above the other. These surfaces at different altitudes do not represent geomorphological levels of different ages. - Along the mountain margins the Neogene marine terraces usually represent younger geomorphological surfaces than the uplifted and exhumed horst surfaces. Nevertheless it is frequently encountered that the Pannonian marine formations overlie horsts uplifted to 400 to 500 m height which were buried in the Paleogene. Elsewhere the Upper Pannonian travertine overlies the surface of the ancient Mesozoic geomorphic surface (Balaton Highland, at ca 300 m a.s.l.). Along the mountain margins of horsts the Late Cenozoic geomorphic surfaces (marine terraces, pediments, river terraces) were preserved by the hard cover of travertines from the subsequent erosion. Travertines were formed by karst springs on the base level. In the Transdanubian Mountains altogether 12 Neogene and Quaternary geomorphic surfaces were preserved by travertines. This phenomenon is characteristic of the mountain margins and of some larger valleys. On the valley-side terraces a lower sequence of travertines is deposited (between 120 and 250 m a.s.l.). The higher situated sequences of travertine covers the pediments and marine terraces. To determine their age, fauna remnants, paleomagnetic and absolute chronological data are available.

AB - In the Transdanubian Mountains the Mesozoic horst with bauxite-bearing ancient tropical karst found overlain by thin Upper Cretaceous or Eocene sediments are regarded remains of the Cretaceous etchplain (Fig. 3). According to their orographic position these semi-buried horsts may occur in uplifted position (summit level) and as lower steps i.e. in threshold position as well. These fundamental morphogenetic surfaces already existed in the Cretaceous and no considerable changes occurred during the subsequent repeated exhumation accompanying their uplift. It is widespread that the ancient etchplain characterised by tropical tower karst and red-clay bauxite is superimposed by Oligocene sandstone lying conformably (Fig. 4). - It is also frequent that during exhumation only the Tertiary sedimentary cover was eroded from the horst etchplained in the Cretaceous and buried in the Tertiary, thus the exhumed ancient etchplain represents the geomorphological surface. - There are horsts in great number covered by Eocene and Oligocene clastic rocks, on the ancient surface of which sediment movement caused not only smoothing but also considerable change in surface forms. In this case the horst is qualified as a younger reworked e.g. Oligocene geomorphic surface. - Sometimes it is difficult to date the transformation of the exhumed horsts. The starting point may be that the surface of horsts had already been planated in the Cretaceous, the surface of those in lower position changed slightly during the Tertiary, i.e. it is inherited. The uncovered horsts of morphologically higher position underwent pediplanation during the Paleogene and became pedimented along their margins during the Neogene. - The horsts etchplained in the Cretaceous then buried, semi-exhumed and becoming uncovered may occur at different altitudes (Fig. 5). Some types can be found e.g. at the same elevation beside each other within the mountain block. It is also frequent that the planated horsts covered by Oligocene sandstone range steplike one above the other. These surfaces at different altitudes do not represent geomorphological levels of different ages. - Along the mountain margins the Neogene marine terraces usually represent younger geomorphological surfaces than the uplifted and exhumed horst surfaces. Nevertheless it is frequently encountered that the Pannonian marine formations overlie horsts uplifted to 400 to 500 m height which were buried in the Paleogene. Elsewhere the Upper Pannonian travertine overlies the surface of the ancient Mesozoic geomorphic surface (Balaton Highland, at ca 300 m a.s.l.). Along the mountain margins of horsts the Late Cenozoic geomorphic surfaces (marine terraces, pediments, river terraces) were preserved by the hard cover of travertines from the subsequent erosion. Travertines were formed by karst springs on the base level. In the Transdanubian Mountains altogether 12 Neogene and Quaternary geomorphic surfaces were preserved by travertines. This phenomenon is characteristic of the mountain margins and of some larger valleys. On the valley-side terraces a lower sequence of travertines is deposited (between 120 and 250 m a.s.l.). The higher situated sequences of travertine covers the pediments and marine terraces. To determine their age, fauna remnants, paleomagnetic and absolute chronological data are available.

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