The effect of various levels of N, P and K, alone and in combination, on the yield, development and element uptake of an eight-component grass mixture without legumes, the dominant species of which was meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis), was investigated in 2005, in the 32nd year of a long-term mineral fertilization experiment. The soil was a pseudomyceliar (calcareous) chernozem, containing around 3% humus, 3-5% CaCO3 and 20-22% clay in the ploughed layer, with moderate supplies of N and K but poor supplies of P and Zn. The experiment included 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments in two replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. In 2005, however, there was a sufficient quantity of rainfall (649 mm), the distribution of which was also favourable. The grass was planted at the row distance used for cereals on 20 September 2000 after spinach as forecrop, with 60 kg·ha-1 seed consisting of 25% (15 kg) Festuca praten-sis, 21% (12.6 kg) each of Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne, 9% (5.4 kg) of Agropyron cristatum and 6% (3.6 kg) each of Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense, Phalaris arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata. The main results were as follows: - N fertilization was decisive, resulting in a 5-fold increase in hay yield over the two cuts, compared with the N control. The maximum air-dry hay yield of around 10 t·ha-1 was achieved with the 300 kg·ha-1·year-1 N rate, combined with AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O contents of around 150 mg·kg-1 and over 150 mg·kg-1, respectively. From the plant diagnostic point of view, the optimum element content in the hay for high yields was around 2% N and K and 0.2-0.3% P. - The minimum and maximum element quantities taken up by the two cuts in the N control, which gave a hay yield of around 2 t·ha-1, and on soil well supplied with nitrogen and PK, giving a yield of 10 t·ha -1, were 21 and 196 kg N, 39 and 188 kg K, 9 and 48 kg Ca, 4 and 22 kg Mg, and 6 and 21 kg P, respectively. - The N×P and N×K interactions became more pronounced in the 2nd cut. As a function of the N×P treatments, extreme values of 0.18-0.55% were observed for P, 86-1582 mg·kg-1 for NO3-N, 4.7-7.4 mg·kg-1 for Cu and 0.7-4.1 mg·kg-1 for Mo. In the N×K treatments extreme values of 1.44-2.73% for K, 0.26-0.39% for Mg, 71-2178 mg·kg-1 for Na, 4.1-9.6 mg·kg-1 for Ba and 15-44 μg·kg-1 for Cd were typical. Sr concentrations ranged from 10-26 mg·kg-1 in response to P×K supplies. From the physiological and feeding point of view it is essential to monitor these interactions, to avoid nutrient deficiencies or imbalances large enough to cause metabolic disturbances in the animals consuming the fodder. Table 1. Treatments and their effects on the AL-soluble nutrient contents in the ploughed layer of a calcareous chernozem soil in Nagyhörcsök in 2005. (1) Mineral fertilization and soil analysis. (2) Treatments and mineral fertilization levels. (3) LSD5%. (4) Mean. Table 2. Effect of N×P supplies on the development and yield of a sward established on pseudomyceliar chernozem soil in 2005, averaged over the K treatments (Nagyhör-csök). (1) N fertilization, kg N·ha -1·year-1. (2) LSD5%. (3) and a) Mean. A. Plant cover, % (May 25). B. Plant height, cm (May 25). C. Air-dry hay, t·ha-1 (1st cut, May 25). D. Air-dry hay, t·ha-1 (2nd cut, Sep. 12). E. Air-dry hay, t·ha-1 (1st and 2nd cut, total). Table 3. Effect of mineral fertilization on the NH4-acetate+EDTA-soluble nutrient content of the ploughed layer of a pseudomyceliear chernozem soil, mg·kg-1 (Nagyhörcsök, 10 Oct. 2005). (1) Element. (2) NPK supply levels. (3) LSD5%. (4) Mean. A. Effect of N fertilization (averaged over PK treatments). B. Effect of P fertilization (averaged over NK treatments). C. Effect of K fertilization (averaged over NP treatments). Note: For NPK supply levels, see Table 1. On average, irrespective of the treatments (Ca, Fe, Ni and Cu, Co, B and Zn); As, Hg, Cr and Se were below the 0.1 mg·kg-1 detection limit. Table 4. Effect of N fertilization on the NO3-N and mineral element contents of the air-dry hay of a sward established on pseudomyceliar chernozem soil, averaged over the PK treatments (Nagyhörcsök, 1st cut, 25 May 2005). (1) Element symbol and units. (2) N fertilization, kg N·ha -1·year-1. (3)-(4): see Table 3. Table 5. Effect of N×P and N×K supplies on the nutrient content of the air-dry hay of a sward established on pseudomyceliar chernozem soil (Nagyhörcsök, 1st cut, 25 May 2005). (1) PK supplies, mg·kg-1. (2)-(4): see Table 3. Table 6. Effect of N fertilization on the nutrient content of the air-dry hay of a sward established on pseudomyceliar chernozem soil, averaged over the PK treatments (Nagy-hörcsök, 2nd cut, 12 Sep. 2005). (1)-(4): see Table 4. Table 7. Effect of N×P supplies on the nutrient content of the air-dry hay of a sward established on pseudomyceliar chernozem soil, averaged over the K treatments (Nagy-hörcsök, 2 nd cut, 12 Sep. 2005). (1)-(3): see Table 2. Table 8. Effect of N×K supplies on the nutrient content of the air-dry hay of a sward established on pseudomyceliar chernozem soil, averaged over the P treatments (Nagyhörcsök, 2nd cut, 12 Sep. 2005). (1)-(3): see Table 2.
|Translated title of the contribution||Evaluation of mineral fertilizer effects in a long-term experiment on a planted sward|
|Number of pages||20|
|Journal||Agrokemia es Talajtan|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2010|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Soil Science