Evaluation of InP-to-silicon heterobonding

Donato Pasquariello, Martin Camacho, Klas Hjort, László Dózsa, Béla Szentpáli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we evaluate hydrophilic (HP) and hydrophobic (HB) surface pre-treatments in InP-to-Si direct wafer bonding. Surface roughness and surface chemistry was examined using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. After bonding, the bonded interfaces were evaluated using infrared transmission imaging, bond-strength and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. It was found that HP surface treatment using oxygen plasma makes room temperature bonding of InP and Si very spontaneous, and results in high bond-strengths already after low-temperature annealing. This was not observed when using standard oxidising acids as HP surface treatment before bonding. HB InP and Si surfaces, also, did not prove to bond spontaneously at room temperature and the bond-strength started to increase only after annealing at about 400°C. HB bonding and annealing at 400°C was though the best choice regarding the electrical characteristics of the bonded InP/Si heterojunction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134-137
Number of pages4
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 22 2001


  • Heterojunction
  • Surface energy
  • Surface roughnes
  • Wafer bonding
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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