With the increasing number of innovative remediation technologies, the decision makers, the owners and other stakeholders should be guided by useful information ensured by a technology-assessment tool, which evaluates the technological, environmental, eco- and cost-efficiency of the technology. Especially the in situ technologies based on natural biological processes are mistrusted and suffer from lack of confidence, due to missing information, objective evaluation and transparent verification. A complex evaluation/verification system was developed for soil remediation technologies, which can be applied generally both to bioremediation and in situ soil treatment. The multistage verification methodology includes 1. material balance, that is the mass flow balance of the soil phases and the modified or eliminated pollutant amount, 2. quantitative characterisation of the environmental risk before, during and after the remediation, 3. cost-efficiency or if necessary and possible, cost-benefit assessment and 4. SWOT analysis. Both of the field applications introduced in this publication were the first demonstrations of the innovative technologies, developed in our laboratories in the frame of Hungarian R & D Projects. Main goals of the first field applications were to prove the findings of the laboratory experiments and to acquire data for the technology-verification, which has been developed and recommended for wider use by the authors. This contribution introduces in detail the complex verification system developed and applied for the characterisation and evaluation of two very different in situ remediation technologies: 1. the cyclodextrin technology" (CDT), which is an innovative bioremediation developed and used for soil contaminated with hydrocarbons of low bioavailability; 2. the combined chemical and phytostabilisation (CCP) applied for point and diffuse sources contaminated by toxic metals. The randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) was found to significantly enhance the bioremediation and detoxification of the transformer oil-contaminated soil increasing the bioavailability of the pollutants and the activity of indigenous microorganisms. The feasibility of the innovative cyclodextrin-enhanced bioremediation (CDT) was demonstrated in a field application. The verification of the CDT using the developed innovative tool-box proved the efficiency and the competitiveness of the CDT. The combined chemical and phytostabilisation (CCP) is based on the concept of reducing risk making the metals irreversibly immobile, as well as stopping runoff and soil erosion. The results of the stabilisation microcosm experiments indicate that it is possible to reduce the mobility of toxic metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and As by soil treatment with chemical stabilizers. The complex technology-monitoring of the CCP enabled differentiation between extractability, bioavailability and accessibility for plant uptake. The development and application of a uniform remediation technology-verification system makes possible better understanding and evaluation of the remediation technologies and is able to increase trust in remediation, including in situ biotechnologies. The first demonstration of the technologies introduced here make possible the evaluation of the verification system itself and show the direction toward further development on the basis of the first experiences.
|Title of host publication||Environmental Microbiology Research Trends|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Number of pages||58|
|ISBN (Print)||160021939X, 9781600219399|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 6 2008|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)