Eutrophication is caused by enrichment of waters with excess plant nutrients, which leads to enhanced vegetation growth. Abundant plant growth produces an undesirable disturbance to the balance of organisms and the quality of water. Various structural and functional changes accompany both eutrophication and its reversal, oligotrophication. Because of threshold effects and delayed responses, these changes are typically nonlinear, and alternative stable states may prevail in a wide range of external nutrient loads. Eutrophication can partly or fully be reversed by reducing nutrient loads. Reversal, however, may require a long time and thus, several methods have been elaborated that aim at enhancing oligotrophication by manipulating biotic interactions within the aquatic ecosystem.
- Compositional changes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Environmental Science(all)