European surveillance of emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease

Judy A. Mitchell, Jacqueline M. Cardwell, Heather Leach, Caray A. Walker, Sophie Le Poder, Nicola Decaro, Miklos Rusvai, Herman Egberink, Peter Rottier, Mireia Fernandez, Eirini Fragkiadaki, Shelly Shields, Joe Brownlie

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a major cause of morbidity in dogs worldwide, and is associated with a number of new and emerging pathogens. In a large multi-centre European study the prevalences of four key emerging CIRD pathogens; canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), influenza A, and Mycoplasma cynos (M. cynos); were estimated, and risk factors for exposure, infection and clinical disease were investigated. CIRD affected 66% (381/572) of the dogs studied, including both pet and kennelled dogs. Disease occurrence and severity were significantly reduced in dogs vaccinated against classic CIRD agents, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus 2 (CAV-2) and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), but substantial proportions (65.7%; 201/306) of vaccinated dogs remained affected. CRCoV and CnPnV were highly prevalent across the different dog populations, with overall seropositivity and detection rates of 47% and 7.7% for CRCoV, and 41.7% and 23.4% for CnPnV, respectively, and their presence was associated with increased occurrence and severity of clinical disease. Antibodies to CRCoV had a protective effect against CRCoV infection and more severe clinical signs of CIRD but antibodies to CnPnV did not. Involvement of M. cynos and influenza A in CIRD was less apparent. Despite 45% of dogs being seropositive for M. cynos, only 0.9% were PCR positive for M. cynos. Only 2.7% of dogs were seropositive for Influenza A, and none were positive by PCR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-38
Number of pages8
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017


  • Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD)
  • Canine influenza (CIV)
  • Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV)
  • Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV)
  • Kennel cough
  • Mycoplasma cynos

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • veterinary(all)

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    Mitchell, J. A., Cardwell, J. M., Leach, H., Walker, C. A., Le Poder, S., Decaro, N., Rusvai, M., Egberink, H., Rottier, P., Fernandez, M., Fragkiadaki, E., Shields, S., & Brownlie, J. (2017). European surveillance of emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease. Veterinary Microbiology, 212, 31-38.