Ethidium bromide efflux by Salmonella: Modulation by metabolic energy, pH, ions and phenothiazines

Leonard Amaral, Pedro Cerca, G. Spengler, Lisa MacHado, Ana Martins, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros, Séamus Fanning, Jean Marie Pags

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The main efflux pump of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, which obtains its energy for the extrusion of noxious agents from the proton-motive force, was studied with the aid of an ethidium bromide (EtBr) semi-automated method under conditions that define the role of metabolic energy, ions and pH in the extrusion of the universal substrate EtBr. The results obtained in this study indicate that in minimal medium containing sodium at pH 5 efflux of EtBr is independent of glucose, whereas at pH 8 metabolic energy is an absolute requirement for the maintenance of efflux. In deionised water at pH 5.5, metabolic energy is required for the maintenance of efflux. The inhibitory effect of the ionophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on efflux is shown to be minimised by low pH, and at high pH by metabolic energy. Similarly, thioridazine, an inhibitor of metabolic enzymes, inhibits efflux of EtBr only at pH 8 and the degree of inhibition is lessened by the presence of metabolic energy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-145
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Volume38
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011

Fingerprint

Phenothiazines
Ethidium
Salmonella
Ions
Maintenance
Thioridazine
Proton-Motive Force
Salmonella enterica
Ionophores
Enzyme Inhibitors
Sodium
Glucose
Water

Keywords

  • CCCP
  • Efflux pump
  • Hydronium ions
  • Ions
  • Metabolic energy
  • pH
  • Proton-motive force
  • Salmonella Enteritidis
  • Thioridazine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Ethidium bromide efflux by Salmonella : Modulation by metabolic energy, pH, ions and phenothiazines. / Amaral, Leonard; Cerca, Pedro; Spengler, G.; MacHado, Lisa; Martins, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Fanning, Séamus; Pags, Jean Marie.

In: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol. 38, No. 2, 08.2011, p. 140-145.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amaral, Leonard ; Cerca, Pedro ; Spengler, G. ; MacHado, Lisa ; Martins, Ana ; Couto, Isabel ; Viveiros, Miguel ; Fanning, Séamus ; Pags, Jean Marie. / Ethidium bromide efflux by Salmonella : Modulation by metabolic energy, pH, ions and phenothiazines. In: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2011 ; Vol. 38, No. 2. pp. 140-145.
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