Our aim was to examine the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the local periosteal and systemic inflammatory consequences of hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in Sprague–Dawley rats with chronic estrogen deficiency (13 weeks after ovariectomy, OVX) in the presence and absence of chronic 17beta-estradiol supplementation (E2, 20 µg kg −1 , 5 days/week for 5 weeks); sham-operated (non-OVX) animals served as controls. As assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy, rolling and the firm adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNs) gave similar results in the Sham + IR and OVX + IR groups in the tibial periosteal microcirculation during the 3-h reperfusion period after a 60-min tourniquet ischemia. Postischemic increases in periosteal PMN adhesion and PMN-derived adhesion molecule CD11b expressions, however, were significantly reduced by IPC (two cycles of 10′/10′) in Sham animals, but not in OVX animals; neither plasma free radical levels (as measured by chemiluminescence), nor TNF-alpha release was affected by IPC. E2 supplementation in OVX animals restored the IPC-related microcirculatory integrity and PMN-derived CD11b levels, and TNF-alpha and free radical levels were reduced by IPC only with E2. An enhanced estrogen receptor beta expression could also be demonstrated after E2 in the periosteum. Overall, the beneficial periosteal microcirculatory effects of limb IPC are lost in chronic estrogen deficiency, but they can be restored by E2 supplementation. This suggests that the presence of endogenous estrogen is a necessary facilitating factor of the anti-inflammatory protection provided by limb IPC in females. The IPC-independent effects of E2 on inflammatory reactions should also be taken into account in this model.
- ischemic preconditioning
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine