Estimating the effects of Cry1F Bt-maize pollen on non-target Lepidoptera using a mathematical model of exposure

Joe N. Perry, Yann Devos, Salvatore Arpaia, Detlef Bartsch, Christina Ehlert, Achim Gathmann, Rosemary S. Hails, Niels B. Hendriksen, J. Kiss, Antoine Messéan, Sylvie Mestdagh, Gerd Neemann, Marco Nuti, Jeremy B. Sweet, Christoph C. Tebbe

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34 Citations (Scopus)


In farmland biodiversity, a potential risk to the larvae of non-target Lepidoptera from genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize expressing insecticidal Cry1 proteins is the ingestion of harmful amounts of pollen deposited on their host plants. A previous mathematical model of exposure quantified this risk for Cry1Ab protein. We extend this model to quantify the risk for sensitive species exposed to pollen containing Cry1F protein from maize event 1507 and to provide recommendations for management to mitigate this risk. A 14-parameter mathematical model integrating small- and large-scale exposure was used to estimate the larval mortality of hypothetical species with a range of sensitivities, and under a range of simulated mitigation measures consisting of non-Bt maize strips of different widths placed around the field edge. The greatest source of variability in estimated mortality was species sensitivity. Before allowance for effects of large-scale exposure, with moderate within-crop host-plant density and with no mitigation, estimated mortality locally was

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-37
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Ecology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012



  • Bt
  • Crop management
  • Cry1F
  • Ecological impact
  • Exposure
  • Genetically modified maize
  • Mathematical model
  • Mitigation measures
  • Non-target Lepidoptera

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology

Cite this

Perry, J. N., Devos, Y., Arpaia, S., Bartsch, D., Ehlert, C., Gathmann, A., Hails, R. S., Hendriksen, N. B., Kiss, J., Messéan, A., Mestdagh, S., Neemann, G., Nuti, M., Sweet, J. B., & Tebbe, C. C. (2012). Estimating the effects of Cry1F Bt-maize pollen on non-target Lepidoptera using a mathematical model of exposure. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49(1), 29-37.