Erosion of primary volcanic depressions in the Inner Carpathian Volcanic chain

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13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During a complex, continental and island arc volcanism, different types of primary volcanic landforms were formed in the Carpathian Mountains from the Early Miocene to the Late Pleistocene. Of these, constructional edifices with primary depressions are the most prominent surface features. Due in a great part to the moderate erosion rates typical of temperate continental climate, many of them have been preserved surprisingly well. In this paper, eroded craters, calderas, failure-related and volcano-tectonic depressions are distinguished, and the course and geomorphic characteristics of their degradation are discussed. It is concluded that fluvial erosion, commonly through a single outlet valley and its tributaries, is the major factor that has enlarged and lowered the primary depressions. However, under temperate continental climate, fluvial erosion has been incapable of modifying the circular shape of the original craters and calderas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-62
Number of pages14
JournalZeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, Supplementband
Volume114
Publication statusPublished - 1999

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caldera
crater
volcanic landform
erosion
continental arc
erosion rate
island arc
tributary
volcanism
volcano
Miocene
Pleistocene
valley
tectonics
mountain
continental climate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

Cite this

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abstract = "During a complex, continental and island arc volcanism, different types of primary volcanic landforms were formed in the Carpathian Mountains from the Early Miocene to the Late Pleistocene. Of these, constructional edifices with primary depressions are the most prominent surface features. Due in a great part to the moderate erosion rates typical of temperate continental climate, many of them have been preserved surprisingly well. In this paper, eroded craters, calderas, failure-related and volcano-tectonic depressions are distinguished, and the course and geomorphic characteristics of their degradation are discussed. It is concluded that fluvial erosion, commonly through a single outlet valley and its tributaries, is the major factor that has enlarged and lowered the primary depressions. However, under temperate continental climate, fluvial erosion has been incapable of modifying the circular shape of the original craters and calderas.",
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