Equine encephalomyelitis outbreak caused by a genetic lineage 2 west nile virus in Hungary

O. Kutasi, T. Bakonyi, S. Lecollinet, I. Biksi, E. Ferenczi, C. Bahuon, S. Sardi, S. Zientara, O. Szenci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The spread of lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) from sub-Saharan regions to Europe and the unpredictable change in pathogenicity indicate a potential public and veterinary health threat and requires scientific awareness. Objectives: To describe the results of clinical and virological investigations of the 1st outbreak of a genetic lineage 2 WNV encephalomyelitis in horses. Animals: Seventeen horses with neurologic signs. Methods: Information regarding signalment, clinical signs, and outcome was obtained for each animal. Serology was performed in 15 cases, clinicopathological examination in 7 cases, and cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 2 horses. Histopathology was carried out in 4 horses, 2 of which were assessed for the presence of WNV in their nervous system. Results: WNV neutralizing antibody titers were between 10 and 270 (median, 90) and the results of other serological assays were in agreement with those of the plaque reduction neutralization test. Common signs included ataxia, weakness, asymmetric gait, muscle tremors, hypersensitivity, cranial nerve deficits, and recumbency. Twelve animals survived. Amplicons derived from the infection-positive specimens allowed molecular characterization of the viral strain. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: From our results, we conclude that this outbreak was caused by a lineage 2 WNV strain, even though such strains often are considered nonpathogenic. Neurological signs and survival rates were similar to those reported for lineage 1 virus infections. The disease occurrence was not geographically limited as had been the typical case during European outbreaks; this report describes a substantial northwestern spread of the pathogen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)586-591
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume25
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2011

Fingerprint

Equine Encephalomyelitis
equine encephalomyelitis
West Nile virus
Hungary
Disease Outbreaks
Horses
horses
nervous system
outbreak investigation
Encephalomyelitis
Neutralization Tests
animals
disease occurrence
Cranial Nerves
cerebrospinal fluid
neutralization tests
Tremor
Virus Diseases
gait
Serology

Keywords

  • Horse
  • Nervous system
  • West Nile virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Equine encephalomyelitis outbreak caused by a genetic lineage 2 west nile virus in Hungary. / Kutasi, O.; Bakonyi, T.; Lecollinet, S.; Biksi, I.; Ferenczi, E.; Bahuon, C.; Sardi, S.; Zientara, S.; Szenci, O.

In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 3, 05.2011, p. 586-591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kutasi, O. ; Bakonyi, T. ; Lecollinet, S. ; Biksi, I. ; Ferenczi, E. ; Bahuon, C. ; Sardi, S. ; Zientara, S. ; Szenci, O. / Equine encephalomyelitis outbreak caused by a genetic lineage 2 west nile virus in Hungary. In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2011 ; Vol. 25, No. 3. pp. 586-591.
@article{059a741a1c4643bb9346d32da297a9de,
title = "Equine encephalomyelitis outbreak caused by a genetic lineage 2 west nile virus in Hungary",
abstract = "Background: The spread of lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) from sub-Saharan regions to Europe and the unpredictable change in pathogenicity indicate a potential public and veterinary health threat and requires scientific awareness. Objectives: To describe the results of clinical and virological investigations of the 1st outbreak of a genetic lineage 2 WNV encephalomyelitis in horses. Animals: Seventeen horses with neurologic signs. Methods: Information regarding signalment, clinical signs, and outcome was obtained for each animal. Serology was performed in 15 cases, clinicopathological examination in 7 cases, and cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 2 horses. Histopathology was carried out in 4 horses, 2 of which were assessed for the presence of WNV in their nervous system. Results: WNV neutralizing antibody titers were between 10 and 270 (median, 90) and the results of other serological assays were in agreement with those of the plaque reduction neutralization test. Common signs included ataxia, weakness, asymmetric gait, muscle tremors, hypersensitivity, cranial nerve deficits, and recumbency. Twelve animals survived. Amplicons derived from the infection-positive specimens allowed molecular characterization of the viral strain. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: From our results, we conclude that this outbreak was caused by a lineage 2 WNV strain, even though such strains often are considered nonpathogenic. Neurological signs and survival rates were similar to those reported for lineage 1 virus infections. The disease occurrence was not geographically limited as had been the typical case during European outbreaks; this report describes a substantial northwestern spread of the pathogen.",
keywords = "Horse, Nervous system, West Nile virus",
author = "O. Kutasi and T. Bakonyi and S. Lecollinet and I. Biksi and E. Ferenczi and C. Bahuon and S. Sardi and S. Zientara and O. Szenci",
year = "2011",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0715.x",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "586--591",
journal = "Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine",
issn = "0891-6640",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Equine encephalomyelitis outbreak caused by a genetic lineage 2 west nile virus in Hungary

AU - Kutasi, O.

AU - Bakonyi, T.

AU - Lecollinet, S.

AU - Biksi, I.

AU - Ferenczi, E.

AU - Bahuon, C.

AU - Sardi, S.

AU - Zientara, S.

AU - Szenci, O.

PY - 2011/5

Y1 - 2011/5

N2 - Background: The spread of lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) from sub-Saharan regions to Europe and the unpredictable change in pathogenicity indicate a potential public and veterinary health threat and requires scientific awareness. Objectives: To describe the results of clinical and virological investigations of the 1st outbreak of a genetic lineage 2 WNV encephalomyelitis in horses. Animals: Seventeen horses with neurologic signs. Methods: Information regarding signalment, clinical signs, and outcome was obtained for each animal. Serology was performed in 15 cases, clinicopathological examination in 7 cases, and cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 2 horses. Histopathology was carried out in 4 horses, 2 of which were assessed for the presence of WNV in their nervous system. Results: WNV neutralizing antibody titers were between 10 and 270 (median, 90) and the results of other serological assays were in agreement with those of the plaque reduction neutralization test. Common signs included ataxia, weakness, asymmetric gait, muscle tremors, hypersensitivity, cranial nerve deficits, and recumbency. Twelve animals survived. Amplicons derived from the infection-positive specimens allowed molecular characterization of the viral strain. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: From our results, we conclude that this outbreak was caused by a lineage 2 WNV strain, even though such strains often are considered nonpathogenic. Neurological signs and survival rates were similar to those reported for lineage 1 virus infections. The disease occurrence was not geographically limited as had been the typical case during European outbreaks; this report describes a substantial northwestern spread of the pathogen.

AB - Background: The spread of lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) from sub-Saharan regions to Europe and the unpredictable change in pathogenicity indicate a potential public and veterinary health threat and requires scientific awareness. Objectives: To describe the results of clinical and virological investigations of the 1st outbreak of a genetic lineage 2 WNV encephalomyelitis in horses. Animals: Seventeen horses with neurologic signs. Methods: Information regarding signalment, clinical signs, and outcome was obtained for each animal. Serology was performed in 15 cases, clinicopathological examination in 7 cases, and cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 2 horses. Histopathology was carried out in 4 horses, 2 of which were assessed for the presence of WNV in their nervous system. Results: WNV neutralizing antibody titers were between 10 and 270 (median, 90) and the results of other serological assays were in agreement with those of the plaque reduction neutralization test. Common signs included ataxia, weakness, asymmetric gait, muscle tremors, hypersensitivity, cranial nerve deficits, and recumbency. Twelve animals survived. Amplicons derived from the infection-positive specimens allowed molecular characterization of the viral strain. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: From our results, we conclude that this outbreak was caused by a lineage 2 WNV strain, even though such strains often are considered nonpathogenic. Neurological signs and survival rates were similar to those reported for lineage 1 virus infections. The disease occurrence was not geographically limited as had been the typical case during European outbreaks; this report describes a substantial northwestern spread of the pathogen.

KW - Horse

KW - Nervous system

KW - West Nile virus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79955497234&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79955497234&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0715.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0715.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 21457323

AN - SCOPUS:79955497234

VL - 25

SP - 586

EP - 591

JO - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

JF - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

SN - 0891-6640

IS - 3

ER -