Epigenetic regulation

J. Mináróvits, Ferenc Banati, Kalman Szenthe, Hans Helmut Niller

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Some of the key epigenetic regulatory mechanisms appeared early during evolution, and the acquisition of novel epigenetic regulators apparently facilitated certain evolutionary transitions. In this short review we focus mainly on the major epigenetic mechanisms that control chromatin structure and accessibility in mammalian cells. The enzymes methylating CpG dinucleotides and those involved in the active demethylation of 5-metylcytosine (5mC) are outlined together with the members of the methyl binding protein (MBP) family that bind to and “interpret” the 5mC mark. The enzymes involved in reversible, covalent modifications of core histone proteins that affect chromatin structure are also described briefly. Proteins that build up Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) protein complexes may also modify histones. By establishing heritable chromatin states, PcG and TrxG complexes contribute - similarly to cytosine methylation - to the transmission of cell type-specifi c gene expression patterns from cell generation to cell generation. Novel players involved in epigenetic regulation, including variant histones, pioneer transcription factors, long noncoding RNA molecules and the regulators of long-distance chromatin interactions are introduced as well, followed by the characterization of various chromatin types.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
PublisherSpringer New York LLC
Pages1-25
Number of pages25
Volume879
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Volume879
ISSN (Print)00652598
ISSN (Electronic)22148019

Fingerprint

Epigenomics
Chromatin
Histones
Histone Code
Long Noncoding RNA
Proteins
Methylation
Cytosine
Enzymes
Gene expression
Carrier Proteins
Transcription Factors
Cells
Gene Expression
Molecules

Keywords

  • Chromatin loops
  • DNA methylation
  • Histone modifications
  • Long noncoding RNAs
  • Pioneer transcription factors
  • Polycomb and Trithorax complexes
  • Variant histones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Mináróvits, J., Banati, F., Szenthe, K., & Niller, H. H. (2016). Epigenetic regulation. In Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (Vol. 879, pp. 1-25). (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Vol. 879). Springer New York LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24738-0_1

Epigenetic regulation. / Mináróvits, J.; Banati, Ferenc; Szenthe, Kalman; Niller, Hans Helmut.

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 879 Springer New York LLC, 2016. p. 1-25 (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Vol. 879).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Mináróvits, J, Banati, F, Szenthe, K & Niller, HH 2016, Epigenetic regulation. in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. vol. 879, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 879, Springer New York LLC, pp. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24738-0_1
Mináróvits J, Banati F, Szenthe K, Niller HH. Epigenetic regulation. In Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 879. Springer New York LLC. 2016. p. 1-25. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24738-0_1
Mináróvits, J. ; Banati, Ferenc ; Szenthe, Kalman ; Niller, Hans Helmut. / Epigenetic regulation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 879 Springer New York LLC, 2016. pp. 1-25 (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology).
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