Environmental objective analysis, ranking and clustering of Hungarian cities

László Makra, I. Ionel, Károly Bodnár, Zoltán Sümeghy, Gábor Tusnády

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


The aim of the study is to rank and classify Hungarian cities according to environmental and social elements. To reach this goal, a 'Green City Index' was calculated, which is used to rank cities into different categories of 19 environmental and social elements. Furthermore, our aim is to classify cities using geographic clustering. After performing factor analysis, the retained factors received the so-called collective nouns on the relation of the individual factor loadings to the original variables. According to the factor scores map of the retained factors it can be established that the region around Budapest indicates favourable supply with water and sewerage public utilities, with waste management and with settlement amenities. Transdanubia shows favourable position in waste management, climate, air quality and settlement amenities. The Hungarian Great Plain indicates low energy consumption, friendly waste management and low dust levels. However, the northern mountainous region does not show favourable properties in any component. The Lake Balaton region, the first recreational area of Hungary, is favourable in all components, except for waste management. Cluster analysis resulted in 6 most homogenous groups of cities, which did not form comprehensive spatial patterns. Environmentally friendly and adverse cities form separate clusters. However, the clusters are not compact. Each of them involves cities far from the region, where they condense.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)202-224
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Environmental Protection and Ecology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017



  • Factor analysis
  • Geographic clustering
  • Green index
  • Ranking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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