Environmental Factors Correlated with the Metabolite Profile of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Berry Skins along a European Latitudinal Gradient

María Ángeles Del-Castillo-Alonso, Antonella Castagna, Kristóf Csepregi, Éva Hideg, Gabor Jakab, Marcel A.K. Jansen, Tjaša Jug, Laura Llorens, Anikó Mátai, Johann Martínez-Lüscher, Laura Monforte, Susanne Neugart, Julie Olejnickova, Annamaria Ranieri, Katharina Schödl-Hummel, Monika Schreiner, Gonzalo Soriano, Péter Teszlák, Susanne Tittmann, Otmar UrbanDolors Verdaguer, Gaetano Zipoli, Javier Martínez-Abaigar, Encarnación Núñez-Olivera

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Mature berries of Pinot Noir grapevines were sampled across a latitudinal gradient in Europe, from southern Spain to central Germany. Our aim was to study the influence of latitude-dependent environmental factors on the metabolite composition (mainly phenolic compounds) of berry skins. Solar radiation variables were positively correlated with flavonols and flavanonols and, to a lesser extent, with stilbenes and cinnamic acids. The daily means of global and erythematic UV solar radiation over long periods (bud break-veraison, bud break-harvest, and veraison-harvest), and the doses and daily means in shorter development periods (5-10 days before veraison and harvest) were the variables best correlated with the phenolic profile. The ratio between trihydroxylated and monohydroxylated flavonols, which was positively correlated with antioxidant capacity, was the berry skin variable best correlated with those radiation variables. Total flavanols and total anthocyanins did not show any correlation with radiation variables. Air temperature, degree days, rainfall, and aridity indices showed fewer correlations with metabolite contents than radiation. Moreover, the latter correlations were restricted to the period veraison-harvest, where radiation, temperature, and water availability variables were correlated, making it difficult to separate the possible individual effects of each type of variable. The data show that managing environmental factors, in particular global and UV radiation, through cultural practices during specific development periods, can be useful to promote the synthesis of valuable nutraceuticals and metabolites that influence wine quality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8722-8734
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number46
Publication statusPublished - Nov 23 2016



  • Europe
  • Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir
  • berry skins
  • hydroxylation ratios
  • latitudinal gradient
  • phenolic composition
  • solar radiation
  • ultraviolet radiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Del-Castillo-Alonso, M. Á., Castagna, A., Csepregi, K., Hideg, É., Jakab, G., Jansen, M. A. K., Jug, T., Llorens, L., Mátai, A., Martínez-Lüscher, J., Monforte, L., Neugart, S., Olejnickova, J., Ranieri, A., Schödl-Hummel, K., Schreiner, M., Soriano, G., Teszlák, P., Tittmann, S., ... Núñez-Olivera, E. (2016). Environmental Factors Correlated with the Metabolite Profile of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Berry Skins along a European Latitudinal Gradient. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64(46), 8722-8734. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b03272