Ensemble transformation and adaptive observations

Craig H. Bishop, Zoltan Toth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

191 Citations (Scopus)


A meteorological application of the ensemble transform technique is explored by taking an example from the Fronts and Atlantic Storm Tracks Experiment (FASTEX). It is shown that the ensemble transform technique would precisely recover the prediction error covariance matrices associated with each possible deployment of observational resources provided that estimates of the analysis error covariance matrix are precise, the ensemble perturbations span the vector space of all possible perturbations, and the evolution of errors are linear and perfectly modeled. When these conditions are not met, the approach provides a rational framework for combining informed guesses about the analysis error covariance matrix associated with different possible deployments of observational resources with useful error covariance and growth information contained within the evolving ensemble perturbations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1748-1765
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 1999


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

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