Enhanced dispersion and stability of gold nanoparticles on stoichiometric and reduced TiO2(1 1 0) surface in the presence of molybdenum

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Abstract

Mo, Au and their coadsorbed layers were produced on nearly stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient titania surfaces by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and characterized by low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The behavior of Au/Mo bimetallic layers was studied at different relative metal coverages and sample temperatures. STM data indicated clearly that the deposition of Au on the Mo-covered stoichiometric TiO2(1 1 0) surface results in an enhanced dispersion of gold at 300 K. The mean size of the Au nanoparticles formed at 300 K on the Mo-covered TiO2(1 1 0) was significantly less than on the Mo-free titania surface (2 ± 0.5 nm and 4 ± 1 nm, respectively). Interestingly, the deposition of Mo at 300 K onto the stoichiometric TiO2(1 1 0) surface covered by Au nanoparticles of 3-4 nm (0.5 ML) also resulted in an increased dispersity of gold. The driving force for the enhanced wetting at 300 K is that the Au-Mo bond energy is larger than the Au-Au bond energy in 3D gold particles formed on stoichiometric titania. In contrast, 2D gold nanoparticles produced on ion-sputtered titania were not disrupted in the presence of Mo at 300 K, indicating a considerable kinetic hindrance for breaking of the strong Au-TiOx bond. The annealing of the coadsorbed layer formed on a strongly reduced surface to 740 K did not cause a decrease in the wetting of titania surface by gold. The preserved dispersion of Au at higher temperatures is attributed to the presence of the oxygen-deficient sites of titania, which were retained through the reaction of molybdenum with the substrate. Our results suggest that using a Mo-load to titania, Au nanoparticles can be produced with high dispersion and high thermal stability, which offers the fabrication of an effective Au catalyst.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1650-1658
Number of pages9
JournalSurface Science
Volume602
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2008

Fingerprint

Molybdenum
Gold
molybdenum
titanium
Titanium
gold
Nanoparticles
nanoparticles
Scanning tunneling microscopy
wetting
Wetting
scanning tunneling microscopy
Ions
Oxygen
Physical vapor deposition
ion scattering
oxygen
Auger electron spectroscopy
titanium dioxide
Auger spectroscopy

Keywords

  • Au
  • Bimetallic system
  • Enhanced dispersion
  • Mo
  • Nanoparticles
  • Oxygen-deficient
  • Thermal stability
  • TiO(1 1 0) surface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces

Cite this

@article{fcac1ada217346318987cf0b2fac00b0,
title = "Enhanced dispersion and stability of gold nanoparticles on stoichiometric and reduced TiO2(1 1 0) surface in the presence of molybdenum",
abstract = "Mo, Au and their coadsorbed layers were produced on nearly stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient titania surfaces by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and characterized by low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The behavior of Au/Mo bimetallic layers was studied at different relative metal coverages and sample temperatures. STM data indicated clearly that the deposition of Au on the Mo-covered stoichiometric TiO2(1 1 0) surface results in an enhanced dispersion of gold at 300 K. The mean size of the Au nanoparticles formed at 300 K on the Mo-covered TiO2(1 1 0) was significantly less than on the Mo-free titania surface (2 ± 0.5 nm and 4 ± 1 nm, respectively). Interestingly, the deposition of Mo at 300 K onto the stoichiometric TiO2(1 1 0) surface covered by Au nanoparticles of 3-4 nm (0.5 ML) also resulted in an increased dispersity of gold. The driving force for the enhanced wetting at 300 K is that the Au-Mo bond energy is larger than the Au-Au bond energy in 3D gold particles formed on stoichiometric titania. In contrast, 2D gold nanoparticles produced on ion-sputtered titania were not disrupted in the presence of Mo at 300 K, indicating a considerable kinetic hindrance for breaking of the strong Au-TiOx bond. The annealing of the coadsorbed layer formed on a strongly reduced surface to 740 K did not cause a decrease in the wetting of titania surface by gold. The preserved dispersion of Au at higher temperatures is attributed to the presence of the oxygen-deficient sites of titania, which were retained through the reaction of molybdenum with the substrate. Our results suggest that using a Mo-load to titania, Au nanoparticles can be produced with high dispersion and high thermal stability, which offers the fabrication of an effective Au catalyst.",
keywords = "Au, Bimetallic system, Enhanced dispersion, Mo, Nanoparticles, Oxygen-deficient, Thermal stability, TiO(1 1 0) surface",
author = "L. Bugyi and A. Berk{\'o} and L. {\'O}v{\'a}ri and Kiss, {Anna M.} and J. Kiss",
year = "2008",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.susc.2008.02.032",
language = "English",
volume = "602",
pages = "1650--1658",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Enhanced dispersion and stability of gold nanoparticles on stoichiometric and reduced TiO2(1 1 0) surface in the presence of molybdenum

AU - Bugyi, L.

AU - Berkó, A.

AU - Óvári, L.

AU - Kiss, Anna M.

AU - Kiss, J.

PY - 2008/5/1

Y1 - 2008/5/1

N2 - Mo, Au and their coadsorbed layers were produced on nearly stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient titania surfaces by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and characterized by low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The behavior of Au/Mo bimetallic layers was studied at different relative metal coverages and sample temperatures. STM data indicated clearly that the deposition of Au on the Mo-covered stoichiometric TiO2(1 1 0) surface results in an enhanced dispersion of gold at 300 K. The mean size of the Au nanoparticles formed at 300 K on the Mo-covered TiO2(1 1 0) was significantly less than on the Mo-free titania surface (2 ± 0.5 nm and 4 ± 1 nm, respectively). Interestingly, the deposition of Mo at 300 K onto the stoichiometric TiO2(1 1 0) surface covered by Au nanoparticles of 3-4 nm (0.5 ML) also resulted in an increased dispersity of gold. The driving force for the enhanced wetting at 300 K is that the Au-Mo bond energy is larger than the Au-Au bond energy in 3D gold particles formed on stoichiometric titania. In contrast, 2D gold nanoparticles produced on ion-sputtered titania were not disrupted in the presence of Mo at 300 K, indicating a considerable kinetic hindrance for breaking of the strong Au-TiOx bond. The annealing of the coadsorbed layer formed on a strongly reduced surface to 740 K did not cause a decrease in the wetting of titania surface by gold. The preserved dispersion of Au at higher temperatures is attributed to the presence of the oxygen-deficient sites of titania, which were retained through the reaction of molybdenum with the substrate. Our results suggest that using a Mo-load to titania, Au nanoparticles can be produced with high dispersion and high thermal stability, which offers the fabrication of an effective Au catalyst.

AB - Mo, Au and their coadsorbed layers were produced on nearly stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient titania surfaces by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and characterized by low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The behavior of Au/Mo bimetallic layers was studied at different relative metal coverages and sample temperatures. STM data indicated clearly that the deposition of Au on the Mo-covered stoichiometric TiO2(1 1 0) surface results in an enhanced dispersion of gold at 300 K. The mean size of the Au nanoparticles formed at 300 K on the Mo-covered TiO2(1 1 0) was significantly less than on the Mo-free titania surface (2 ± 0.5 nm and 4 ± 1 nm, respectively). Interestingly, the deposition of Mo at 300 K onto the stoichiometric TiO2(1 1 0) surface covered by Au nanoparticles of 3-4 nm (0.5 ML) also resulted in an increased dispersity of gold. The driving force for the enhanced wetting at 300 K is that the Au-Mo bond energy is larger than the Au-Au bond energy in 3D gold particles formed on stoichiometric titania. In contrast, 2D gold nanoparticles produced on ion-sputtered titania were not disrupted in the presence of Mo at 300 K, indicating a considerable kinetic hindrance for breaking of the strong Au-TiOx bond. The annealing of the coadsorbed layer formed on a strongly reduced surface to 740 K did not cause a decrease in the wetting of titania surface by gold. The preserved dispersion of Au at higher temperatures is attributed to the presence of the oxygen-deficient sites of titania, which were retained through the reaction of molybdenum with the substrate. Our results suggest that using a Mo-load to titania, Au nanoparticles can be produced with high dispersion and high thermal stability, which offers the fabrication of an effective Au catalyst.

KW - Au

KW - Bimetallic system

KW - Enhanced dispersion

KW - Mo

KW - Nanoparticles

KW - Oxygen-deficient

KW - Thermal stability

KW - TiO(1 1 0) surface

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