Endocrine factors in the hypothalamic regulation of food intake in females: A review of the physiological roles and interactions of ghrelin, leptin, thyroid hormones, oestrogen and insulin

V. Somogyi, A. Gyorffy, T. J. Scalise, D. S. Kiss, G. Goszleth, T. Bartha, V. L. Frenyo, A. Zsarnovszky

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Controlling energy homeostasis involves modulating the desire to eat and regulating energy expenditure. The controlling machinery includes a complex interplay of hormones secreted at various peripheral endocrine endpoints, such as the gastrointestinal tract, the adipose tissue, thyroid gland and thyroid hormone-exporting organs, the ovary and the pancreas, and, last but not least, the brain itself. The peripheral hormones that are the focus of the present review (ghrelin, leptin, thyroid hormones, oestrogen and insulin) play integrated regulatory roles in and provide feedback information on the nutritional and energetic status of the body. As peripheral signals, these hormones modulate central pathways in the brain, including the hypothalamus, to influence food intake, energy expenditure and to maintain energy homeostasis. Since the growth of the literature on the role of various hormones in the regulation of energy homeostasis shows a remarkable and dynamic expansion, it is now becoming increasingly difficult to understand the individual and interactive roles of hormonal mechanisms in their true complexity. Therefore, our goal is to review, in the context of general physiology, the roles of the five best-known peripheral trophic hormones (ghrelin, leptin, thyroid hormones, oestrogen and insulin, respectively) and discuss their interactions in the hypothalamic regulation of food intake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-154
Number of pages23
JournalNutrition research reviews
Volume24
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011

Keywords

  • Food intake
  • Hormones
  • Hypothalamic regulation
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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