To elucidate the spatiotemporal phylodynamics, dispersion and evolutionary processes underlying the emergence of novel porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2), PPV3 and PPV4 species, we analysed all available complete capsid genes, together with ours, obtained in Europe. Bayesian phylogeography indicates that Romania (PPV2 and PPV4) and Croatia (PPV3) are the most likely ancestral areas from which PPVs have subsequently spread to other European countries and regions. The timescale of our reconstruction supported a relatively recent history of the currently circulating novel PPV species (1920s to 1980s) in the domestic or sylvatic host. While PPV2 strains exhibited a large genetic exchange characterized by significant recombination and gene flow between distinct regions and hosts, PPV3 and PPV4 showed a diversification reflected by the accumulation of geographically structured polymorphisms. The RNA-like evolutionary rates detected inter and intrahost recombination and the positive selection sites provided evidence that the PPV2-4 capsid gene plays a prominent role in host adaptation.
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