Emerging issues on degradation by-products deriving from personal care products and pharmaceuticals during disinfection processes of water used in swimming pools

Paola Bottoni, Lucia Bonadonna, Mattea Chirico, Sergio Caroli, G. Záray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The use of disinfection substances in the sanitation and disinfection processes of artificial water used for sports amenities and swimming pools has recently raised some serious concerns. Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs) can put at serious risk the health of bathers and swimmers due to adverse effects caused by the use of disinfection chemicals, such as chlorine, chloramine, ozone and UV radiation, as well as their by-products. Remarkable documented evidence is available on the impact of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), such as chloroform and other trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and chlorophenols, deriving from the oxidation of common organic pollutants dissolved in raw, drinking, waste and artificial waters. Appropriate countermeasures, aimed at avoiding bathers' exposures to these chemicals, have been developed and adopted in public and private structures, also through important scientific contributions and technical provisions issued by the WHO and some national health authorities. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that high reactive disinfection agents may transform other undesirable chemicals released by bathers, namely pharmaceuticals, sunscreens and other Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) into chlorinated and oxidized compounds and nitrosamine precursors. The first symptoms of potentially adverse health effects on human subjects of these largely unknown by-products should be adequately taken into consideration and investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-16
Number of pages4
JournalMicrochemical Journal
Volume112
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014

Fingerprint

Swimming pools
Disinfection
Byproducts
Degradation
Water
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Health
Trihalomethanes
Chlorophenols
Sun hoods
Sanitation
Nitrosamines
Organic pollutants
Ozone
Chlorine
Chloroform
Sports
Ultraviolet radiation
Oxidation
Acids

Keywords

  • Disinfection by-products
  • Health risks
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Sunscreens
  • Swimming pool chemicals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy

Cite this

Emerging issues on degradation by-products deriving from personal care products and pharmaceuticals during disinfection processes of water used in swimming pools. / Bottoni, Paola; Bonadonna, Lucia; Chirico, Mattea; Caroli, Sergio; Záray, G.

In: Microchemical Journal, Vol. 112, 01.2014, p. 13-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5283f202f3e3418486b2aa57dd41790a,
title = "Emerging issues on degradation by-products deriving from personal care products and pharmaceuticals during disinfection processes of water used in swimming pools",
abstract = "The use of disinfection substances in the sanitation and disinfection processes of artificial water used for sports amenities and swimming pools has recently raised some serious concerns. Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs) can put at serious risk the health of bathers and swimmers due to adverse effects caused by the use of disinfection chemicals, such as chlorine, chloramine, ozone and UV radiation, as well as their by-products. Remarkable documented evidence is available on the impact of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), such as chloroform and other trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and chlorophenols, deriving from the oxidation of common organic pollutants dissolved in raw, drinking, waste and artificial waters. Appropriate countermeasures, aimed at avoiding bathers' exposures to these chemicals, have been developed and adopted in public and private structures, also through important scientific contributions and technical provisions issued by the WHO and some national health authorities. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that high reactive disinfection agents may transform other undesirable chemicals released by bathers, namely pharmaceuticals, sunscreens and other Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) into chlorinated and oxidized compounds and nitrosamine precursors. The first symptoms of potentially adverse health effects on human subjects of these largely unknown by-products should be adequately taken into consideration and investigated.",
keywords = "Disinfection by-products, Health risks, Pharmaceuticals, Sunscreens, Swimming pool chemicals",
author = "Paola Bottoni and Lucia Bonadonna and Mattea Chirico and Sergio Caroli and G. Z{\'a}ray",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.microc.2013.09.001",
language = "English",
volume = "112",
pages = "13--16",
journal = "Microchemical Journal",
issn = "0026-265X",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Emerging issues on degradation by-products deriving from personal care products and pharmaceuticals during disinfection processes of water used in swimming pools

AU - Bottoni, Paola

AU - Bonadonna, Lucia

AU - Chirico, Mattea

AU - Caroli, Sergio

AU - Záray, G.

PY - 2014/1

Y1 - 2014/1

N2 - The use of disinfection substances in the sanitation and disinfection processes of artificial water used for sports amenities and swimming pools has recently raised some serious concerns. Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs) can put at serious risk the health of bathers and swimmers due to adverse effects caused by the use of disinfection chemicals, such as chlorine, chloramine, ozone and UV radiation, as well as their by-products. Remarkable documented evidence is available on the impact of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), such as chloroform and other trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and chlorophenols, deriving from the oxidation of common organic pollutants dissolved in raw, drinking, waste and artificial waters. Appropriate countermeasures, aimed at avoiding bathers' exposures to these chemicals, have been developed and adopted in public and private structures, also through important scientific contributions and technical provisions issued by the WHO and some national health authorities. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that high reactive disinfection agents may transform other undesirable chemicals released by bathers, namely pharmaceuticals, sunscreens and other Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) into chlorinated and oxidized compounds and nitrosamine precursors. The first symptoms of potentially adverse health effects on human subjects of these largely unknown by-products should be adequately taken into consideration and investigated.

AB - The use of disinfection substances in the sanitation and disinfection processes of artificial water used for sports amenities and swimming pools has recently raised some serious concerns. Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs) can put at serious risk the health of bathers and swimmers due to adverse effects caused by the use of disinfection chemicals, such as chlorine, chloramine, ozone and UV radiation, as well as their by-products. Remarkable documented evidence is available on the impact of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), such as chloroform and other trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and chlorophenols, deriving from the oxidation of common organic pollutants dissolved in raw, drinking, waste and artificial waters. Appropriate countermeasures, aimed at avoiding bathers' exposures to these chemicals, have been developed and adopted in public and private structures, also through important scientific contributions and technical provisions issued by the WHO and some national health authorities. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that high reactive disinfection agents may transform other undesirable chemicals released by bathers, namely pharmaceuticals, sunscreens and other Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) into chlorinated and oxidized compounds and nitrosamine precursors. The first symptoms of potentially adverse health effects on human subjects of these largely unknown by-products should be adequately taken into consideration and investigated.

KW - Disinfection by-products

KW - Health risks

KW - Pharmaceuticals

KW - Sunscreens

KW - Swimming pool chemicals

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84884970147&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84884970147&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.microc.2013.09.001

DO - 10.1016/j.microc.2013.09.001

M3 - Article

VL - 112

SP - 13

EP - 16

JO - Microchemical Journal

JF - Microchemical Journal

SN - 0026-265X

ER -