Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the nose and philtrum

Raoul C.M. Hennekam, Valerie Cormier-Daire, Judith G. Hall, Károly Méhes, Michael Patton, Roger E. Stevenson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)


An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the nose and philtrum, and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of these body regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-76
Number of pages16
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2009



  • Anatomy
  • Anthropometry
  • Definitions
  • Dysmorphology
  • Morphology
  • Nomenclature
  • Nose
  • Philtrum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

Hennekam, R. C. M., Cormier-Daire, V., Hall, J. G., Méhes, K., Patton, M., & Stevenson, R. E. (2009). Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the nose and philtrum. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A, 149(1), 61-76. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.32600