The electron shakeup-plus-shakeoff probabilities accompanying M-shell vacancy creation have been calculated for elements between Z = 72 and 92. The calculations were performed relativistically in the sudden approximation by the use of the Dirac-Fock-Slater wave functions. The relativistic effects are demonstrated in comparison with the nonrelativistic calculations, and the validity of the approximation method based on the difference in the effective nuclear charge is discussed. The dependence of different initial M-subshell vacancies on the shake probability is studied.
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