Phenazine solid crystals have been attached to gold electrodes and investigated by cyclic and potential step electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (ECQM) measurements in the presence of aqueous acidic media. The freshly deposited phenazine layers exhibit a break-in phenomenon. The number of potential cycles required for the layer to be fully electroactive depends on its thickness and also on the nature and concentration of the supporting electrolyte as well as on the scan rate. After the break-in, a considerable amount of solvent molecules remains embedded in the surface layer. The protonated and unprotonated forms of phenazine, whose relative amounts depend on the pH of the contacting solutions, are reduced at different potentials; however, the stable product of the first electron transfer is the respective phenazylium salt. During the second reduction step 5,10-dihydrophenazine and charge-transfer complexes of different compositions are formed. Both the current and microgravimetric responses supplied evidences for the structural rearrangements of the solid phases that accompany the redox reactions. The large separation of the reduction and oxidation peaks relates to the additional energy needed to create the solid/solid interface between the reduced and unreduced or partially reduced forms. The chronoamperometric response shows the characteristics of nucleation and growth kinetics. The phase transformation proceeds with the release of hydration water, and the EQCM response is affected by the strain that develops as a consequence of the phase transformation.
- Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance
- Phase formation
- Solid state voltammetry
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering