In this study we evaluated the effects of selective Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) inhibition by ORM-10103 on the [Ca2+]i transient (CaT), action potential (AP), and cell viability in isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes exposed to a simulated ischemia/reperfusion protocol performed either alone (modeling moderate low-flow ischemia) or with simultaneous strophantidine challenge (modeling more severe low-flow ischemia). CaTs were monitored using a Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye, APs were recorded by intracellular microelectrodes, and anaerobic shifts in cellular metabolism were verified via monitoring native NADH fluorescence. Simulated ischemia increased the NADH fluorescence, reduced the amplitudes of the AP and CaT and induced membrane depolarization. APs moderately shortened, CaTs prolonged. Diastolic [Ca2+]i ([Ca2+]iD) level increased significantly during ischemia and further elevated following strophantidine application. Reperfusion normalized the NADH level, the amplitude of the AP and duration of the [Ca2+]i transient, but only partially restored action potential triangulation and the amplitude of the CaT. [Ca2+]iD decreased in untreated, but further increased in strophantidine-treated cells. 10 μM ORM-10103 significantly reduced the ischemic [Ca2+]i raise in both untreated and strophantidine-treated cells. During reperfusion ORM-10103 decreased [Ca2+]i and eliminated its diastolic elevation in untreated and strophantidine-treated cardiomyocytes. Following the application of ORM-10103 the detrimental effect of ischemia/reperfusion on cell viability and the reperfusion-induced increase in AP and CaT variabilities were substantially reduced, but ischemia-induced shifts in AP morphology were barely influenced. In conclusion, selective NCX inhibition by ORM-10103 is highly effective against ischemia/reperfusion induced pathologic alterations in [Ca2+]i homeostasis, however, it fails to normalize untoward arrhythmogenic changes in AP morphology.
- Action potential
- Ischemia/reperfusion [Ca] homeostasis [Ca] transient
- NCX inhibitors
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