Effects on titanium implant surfaces of chemical agents used for the treatment of peri-implantitis

Krisztina Ungvári, István K. Pelsöczi, Bernadett Kormos, Albert Oszkó, Zoltán Rakonczay, Lajos Kemény, Márta Radnai, Katalin Nagy, András Fazekas, Kinga Turzó

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34 Citations (Scopus)


The treatment of peri-implantitis, which causes tissue deterioration surrounding osseointegrated implants, involves surface decontamination and cleaning. However, chemical cleaning agents may alter the structure of implant surfaces. We investigated three such cleaning solutions. Commercially pure (grade 4) machined titanium discs (CAMLOG Biotechnologies AG, Switzerland) were treated with 3% H2O2 (5 min), saturated citric acid (pH = 1) (1 min) or chlorhexidine gel (5 min), and their surface properties were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Human epithelial cell attachment (24-h observation) and proliferation (72-h observation) were investigated via dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein content assays. AFM revealed no significant difference in roughness of the three treated surfaces. XPS confirmed the constant presence of typical surface elements and an intact TiO2 layer on each surface. The XPS peaks after chlorhexidine gel treatment demonstrated C - O and/or C=O bond formation, due to chlorhexidine digluconate infiltrating the surface. MTT and BCA assays indicated similar epithelial cell attachments in the three groups; epithelial cell proliferation being signifi-cantly higher after H2O2 than after chlorhexidine gel treatment (not shown by BCA assays). These agents do not harm the Ti surface. Cleaning with H2O2 slightly enhances human epithelial cell growth, in contrast to chlorhexidine gel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-229
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2010



  • Atomic force microscopy
  • Chemical agent
  • Chlorhexidine gel
  • Citric acid
  • Epithelial cell culture
  • HO
  • Peri-implantitis
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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