Effects of various extenders and permeating cryoprotectants on cryopreservation of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatozoa

Ya Hui Li, Ke Jun Cai, Andras Kovacs, Wei Zhi Ji

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30 Citations (Scopus)


The cryoprotective effects of 11 different extenders, TTE, DM, mDM, LG-DM, G-DM, TCG, TEST, TSM, Test-M, Test-H, and LM, on sperm cryopreservation of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) have been compared with glycerol as cryoprotectant. Sperm motility, plasma membrane, and acrosomal integrity were examined to evaluate frozen-thawed sperm function. The results showed that TTE, DM, mDM, LG-DM, G-DM, and TCG exhibited the best and similar protective efficiencies for cynomolgus monkey sperm cryopreservation in terms of sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity (P > .05). The acrosomal integrity for spermatozoa cryopreserved in TCG was statistically lower than that of TTE, DM, mDM, LG-DM, and G-DM (P < .05) but was significantly higher than that of TEST, TSM, Test-M, Test-H, and LM (P < .05). The postthaw sperm motility for 5 other extenders (TEST, TSM, Test-M, Test-H, and LM) did not exceed 30%, and the 3 sperm parameters evaluated for them were significantly lower than that of TTE, DM, mDM, LG-DM, G-DM, and TCG (P < .05). On the basis of these findings, 5 commonly used permeating cryoprotectants, glycerol, ethylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetamide and propylene glycol have further been tested for their effectiveness on sperm cryopreservation in extenders of TTE, DM, mDM, LG-DM, G-DM, and TCG. The results showed that the sperm cryoprotective efficiencies of glycerol and ethylene glycol were similar and best among 5 permeating cryoprotectant treatments (P > .05). Dimethyl sulfoxide or acetamide resulted in average cryoprotection for cynomolgus monkey spermatozoa: poorer than glycerol or ethylene glycol but better than that of propylene glycol (P < .05). In addition, the action of permeating cryoprotectant appeared to be independent of extenders. The results in the present study demonstrate that 1) TTE, DM, mDM, LG-DM, G-DM, and TCG are excellent extenders and suitable for cynomolgus monkey sperm cryopreservation; 2) the mechanism of action of permeating cryoprotectants are not affected by extender composition; 3) ethylene glycol has a similar cryoprotective efficacy to glycerol that makes it a successful cryoprotectant for sperm cryopreservation in cynomolgus monkeys.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)387-395
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Andrology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2005



  • Acrosome
  • Freezing
  • Motility
  • Permeability coefficient
  • Plasma membrane
  • Sperm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Endocrinology
  • Urology

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