Effects of primary and quaternary amine intercalants on the organoclay dispersion in a sulfur-cured EPDM rubber

Konstantinos G. Gatos, J. Karger-Kocsis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

98 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of primary and quaternary amine modified montmorillonite (MMT) on the nanocomposite formation in an ethylene/propylene/diene rubber (EPDM) were studied. The organoclay was introduced in 10 parts per 100 rubber (phr) amount in the related recipes. X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD) were recorded in various stages of their processing in order to get information about the intercalation process. The curatives found to play a crucial role, as they promote the intercalation/exfoliation phenomena. Incorporation of MMT modified with octadecylamine (MMT-PRIM) in the EPDM and its more polar version (contains maleic anhydride grafted EPDM, EPDM-MA) resulted in intercalated and exfoliated structures, respectively. Deintercalation of the clay (collapse of the layers), generated in both EPDM and EPDM-MA during vulcanization, was attributed to the reactivity of the PRIM and to its ability to participate in complex formation with the curatives (vulcanization intermediates). This explanation was supported by the non-collapse of the MMT layers when the less reactive modifier, viz. octadecyltrimethylamine served as MMT intercalant (MMT-QUAT). In the latter case the corresponding nanocomposite contained mostly intercalated clay layers based on XRD and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3069-3076
Number of pages8
JournalPolymer (United Kingdom)
Volume46
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 15 2005

Fingerprint

Bentonite
Organoclay
Rubber
Clay minerals
Sulfur
Amines
Vulcanization
Intercalation
Nanocomposites
Maleic Anhydrides
X ray diffraction
Maleic anhydride
Propylene
Ethylene
Electrons
Processing

Keywords

  • EPDM
  • Intercalant type
  • Rubber nanocomposite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

Effects of primary and quaternary amine intercalants on the organoclay dispersion in a sulfur-cured EPDM rubber. / Gatos, Konstantinos G.; Karger-Kocsis, J.

In: Polymer (United Kingdom), Vol. 46, No. 9, 15.04.2005, p. 3069-3076.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{809bdbc41aff4beeb5a9dbc657124054,
title = "Effects of primary and quaternary amine intercalants on the organoclay dispersion in a sulfur-cured EPDM rubber",
abstract = "The effects of primary and quaternary amine modified montmorillonite (MMT) on the nanocomposite formation in an ethylene/propylene/diene rubber (EPDM) were studied. The organoclay was introduced in 10 parts per 100 rubber (phr) amount in the related recipes. X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD) were recorded in various stages of their processing in order to get information about the intercalation process. The curatives found to play a crucial role, as they promote the intercalation/exfoliation phenomena. Incorporation of MMT modified with octadecylamine (MMT-PRIM) in the EPDM and its more polar version (contains maleic anhydride grafted EPDM, EPDM-MA) resulted in intercalated and exfoliated structures, respectively. Deintercalation of the clay (collapse of the layers), generated in both EPDM and EPDM-MA during vulcanization, was attributed to the reactivity of the PRIM and to its ability to participate in complex formation with the curatives (vulcanization intermediates). This explanation was supported by the non-collapse of the MMT layers when the less reactive modifier, viz. octadecyltrimethylamine served as MMT intercalant (MMT-QUAT). In the latter case the corresponding nanocomposite contained mostly intercalated clay layers based on XRD and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) results.",
keywords = "EPDM, Intercalant type, Rubber nanocomposite",
author = "Gatos, {Konstantinos G.} and J. Karger-Kocsis",
year = "2005",
month = "4",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.polymer.2005.01.095",
language = "English",
volume = "46",
pages = "3069--3076",
journal = "Polymer",
issn = "0032-3861",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of primary and quaternary amine intercalants on the organoclay dispersion in a sulfur-cured EPDM rubber

AU - Gatos, Konstantinos G.

AU - Karger-Kocsis, J.

PY - 2005/4/15

Y1 - 2005/4/15

N2 - The effects of primary and quaternary amine modified montmorillonite (MMT) on the nanocomposite formation in an ethylene/propylene/diene rubber (EPDM) were studied. The organoclay was introduced in 10 parts per 100 rubber (phr) amount in the related recipes. X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD) were recorded in various stages of their processing in order to get information about the intercalation process. The curatives found to play a crucial role, as they promote the intercalation/exfoliation phenomena. Incorporation of MMT modified with octadecylamine (MMT-PRIM) in the EPDM and its more polar version (contains maleic anhydride grafted EPDM, EPDM-MA) resulted in intercalated and exfoliated structures, respectively. Deintercalation of the clay (collapse of the layers), generated in both EPDM and EPDM-MA during vulcanization, was attributed to the reactivity of the PRIM and to its ability to participate in complex formation with the curatives (vulcanization intermediates). This explanation was supported by the non-collapse of the MMT layers when the less reactive modifier, viz. octadecyltrimethylamine served as MMT intercalant (MMT-QUAT). In the latter case the corresponding nanocomposite contained mostly intercalated clay layers based on XRD and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) results.

AB - The effects of primary and quaternary amine modified montmorillonite (MMT) on the nanocomposite formation in an ethylene/propylene/diene rubber (EPDM) were studied. The organoclay was introduced in 10 parts per 100 rubber (phr) amount in the related recipes. X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD) were recorded in various stages of their processing in order to get information about the intercalation process. The curatives found to play a crucial role, as they promote the intercalation/exfoliation phenomena. Incorporation of MMT modified with octadecylamine (MMT-PRIM) in the EPDM and its more polar version (contains maleic anhydride grafted EPDM, EPDM-MA) resulted in intercalated and exfoliated structures, respectively. Deintercalation of the clay (collapse of the layers), generated in both EPDM and EPDM-MA during vulcanization, was attributed to the reactivity of the PRIM and to its ability to participate in complex formation with the curatives (vulcanization intermediates). This explanation was supported by the non-collapse of the MMT layers when the less reactive modifier, viz. octadecyltrimethylamine served as MMT intercalant (MMT-QUAT). In the latter case the corresponding nanocomposite contained mostly intercalated clay layers based on XRD and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) results.

KW - EPDM

KW - Intercalant type

KW - Rubber nanocomposite

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=15744375296&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=15744375296&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.polymer.2005.01.095

DO - 10.1016/j.polymer.2005.01.095

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:15744375296

VL - 46

SP - 3069

EP - 3076

JO - Polymer

JF - Polymer

SN - 0032-3861

IS - 9

ER -