Effects of neonicotinoid insecticide formulations and their components on Daphnia magna–the role of active ingredients and co-formulants

Eszter Takács, Szandra Klátyik, Mária Mörtl, Gergely Rácz, Krisztina Kovács, Béla Darvas, András Székács

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)


Formulating agents used in pesticide products have been regarded as inactive/inert components; however, several studies confirmed additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects between the active ingredients (AIs) and additives, or the individual toxicity of the formulating agents. The worldwide used neonicotinoid insecticides and their components can reach surface waters, due to their physico-chemical properties (e.g. water solubility) or improper application in chemical plant protection technology, and can adversely affect non-target aquatic organisms. Formulated pesticides were analysed for alkane sulphonate surfactants by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. In acute immobilisation tests on Daphnia magna, differences were found among the toxicity of the investigated neonicotinoid AIs and formulations. The toxicity of a formulated insecticide (Apache 50 WG®– AI: clothianidin) was found to be 46.5 times more toxic than explained by its AI, probably due to toxic effect of the formulating agents on D. magna. In contrast, two preparations (Calypso 480SC®–AI: thiacloprid, Actara 240 SC®– AI: thiamethoxam) were 2–3 times less toxic than their AIs. Results indicate possible synergistic/antagonistic interaction with the AIs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)885-900
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Jul 15 2017


  • Daphnia magna
  • Neonicotinoid
  • adjuvant
  • liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
  • surfactant
  • toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Soil Science
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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