Effects of interphase on the fracture and failure behavior of knitted fabric reinforced composites produced from commingled GF/PP yarn

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Abstract

The fracture and failure behavior of weft knitted (WK) glass fiber (GF) fabric-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite sheets produced by hot pressing of stacked knit layers composed of commingled yarns were investigated under various loading conditions. The GF content of the commingled yarns with extremely different fiber/matrix adhesion was 50 (≈ 26 vol.%) and 70 wt.% (≈ 45 vol.%), respectively. The development of the damage zone in single edge-notched tensile loaded specimens (SEN-T) was followed by location of the acoustic emission (AE) and by detecting the heat rise via infrared thermography (IT) in both wale (W) and course (C) directions of the knit. The damage zone deduced from AE was much larger than concluded from the IT heat maps. The difference can be explained by the sensitivity of the related techniques. IT assesses the process or active part, whereas AE also includes the dissipation or passive part of the damage zone. Improved interfacial adhesion resulted in a more localized damage zone. It was concluded that the specimen width should be ≥ 25 mm in order to determine mechanical properties reliably. Flexural tests performed with simultaneous failure inspection by light microscopy (LM) and AE elucidated the basic differences in the failure mode between W- and C-specimens. The strong improvement in the instrumented falling weight impact (IFWI) response in the case of the well bonded system was explained by a related upgrading in the stiffness and strength.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1319-1330
Number of pages12
JournalComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
Volume29
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1998

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Polypropylenes
Acoustic emissions
Glass fibers
Yarn
Composite materials
Adhesion
Hot pressing
Failure modes
Optical microscopy
Inspection
Stiffness
Mechanical properties
fiberglass
Fibers
Hot Temperature

Keywords

  • B. interface/interphase
  • Commingled yarn
  • Damage zone
  • Flexure
  • Knitted fabric reinforcement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites

Cite this

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title = "Effects of interphase on the fracture and failure behavior of knitted fabric reinforced composites produced from commingled GF/PP yarn",
abstract = "The fracture and failure behavior of weft knitted (WK) glass fiber (GF) fabric-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite sheets produced by hot pressing of stacked knit layers composed of commingled yarns were investigated under various loading conditions. The GF content of the commingled yarns with extremely different fiber/matrix adhesion was 50 (≈ 26 vol.{\%}) and 70 wt.{\%} (≈ 45 vol.{\%}), respectively. The development of the damage zone in single edge-notched tensile loaded specimens (SEN-T) was followed by location of the acoustic emission (AE) and by detecting the heat rise via infrared thermography (IT) in both wale (W) and course (C) directions of the knit. The damage zone deduced from AE was much larger than concluded from the IT heat maps. The difference can be explained by the sensitivity of the related techniques. IT assesses the process or active part, whereas AE also includes the dissipation or passive part of the damage zone. Improved interfacial adhesion resulted in a more localized damage zone. It was concluded that the specimen width should be ≥ 25 mm in order to determine mechanical properties reliably. Flexural tests performed with simultaneous failure inspection by light microscopy (LM) and AE elucidated the basic differences in the failure mode between W- and C-specimens. The strong improvement in the instrumented falling weight impact (IFWI) response in the case of the well bonded system was explained by a related upgrading in the stiffness and strength.",
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N2 - The fracture and failure behavior of weft knitted (WK) glass fiber (GF) fabric-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite sheets produced by hot pressing of stacked knit layers composed of commingled yarns were investigated under various loading conditions. The GF content of the commingled yarns with extremely different fiber/matrix adhesion was 50 (≈ 26 vol.%) and 70 wt.% (≈ 45 vol.%), respectively. The development of the damage zone in single edge-notched tensile loaded specimens (SEN-T) was followed by location of the acoustic emission (AE) and by detecting the heat rise via infrared thermography (IT) in both wale (W) and course (C) directions of the knit. The damage zone deduced from AE was much larger than concluded from the IT heat maps. The difference can be explained by the sensitivity of the related techniques. IT assesses the process or active part, whereas AE also includes the dissipation or passive part of the damage zone. Improved interfacial adhesion resulted in a more localized damage zone. It was concluded that the specimen width should be ≥ 25 mm in order to determine mechanical properties reliably. Flexural tests performed with simultaneous failure inspection by light microscopy (LM) and AE elucidated the basic differences in the failure mode between W- and C-specimens. The strong improvement in the instrumented falling weight impact (IFWI) response in the case of the well bonded system was explained by a related upgrading in the stiffness and strength.

AB - The fracture and failure behavior of weft knitted (WK) glass fiber (GF) fabric-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite sheets produced by hot pressing of stacked knit layers composed of commingled yarns were investigated under various loading conditions. The GF content of the commingled yarns with extremely different fiber/matrix adhesion was 50 (≈ 26 vol.%) and 70 wt.% (≈ 45 vol.%), respectively. The development of the damage zone in single edge-notched tensile loaded specimens (SEN-T) was followed by location of the acoustic emission (AE) and by detecting the heat rise via infrared thermography (IT) in both wale (W) and course (C) directions of the knit. The damage zone deduced from AE was much larger than concluded from the IT heat maps. The difference can be explained by the sensitivity of the related techniques. IT assesses the process or active part, whereas AE also includes the dissipation or passive part of the damage zone. Improved interfacial adhesion resulted in a more localized damage zone. It was concluded that the specimen width should be ≥ 25 mm in order to determine mechanical properties reliably. Flexural tests performed with simultaneous failure inspection by light microscopy (LM) and AE elucidated the basic differences in the failure mode between W- and C-specimens. The strong improvement in the instrumented falling weight impact (IFWI) response in the case of the well bonded system was explained by a related upgrading in the stiffness and strength.

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