Daily doses of 0.3 mg clonidine and 3 mg guanfacine were equiactive in decreasing blood pressure and heart rate in 17 subjects with essential hypertension. Clonidine decreased cardiac output and guanfacine decreased total peripheral resistance, while clonidine had no effect on stroke volume but guanfacine increased it. Both clonidine and guanfacine decreased plasma renin activity. Naloxone, 0.4 mg iv, reversed the antihypertensive effect of clonidine but was ineffective even at higher doses (1.6 mg iv) when subjects were treated with placebo or guanfacine. It is suggested that the hemodynamic differences between the two centrally acting α2-adrenoceptor agonist antihypertensive drugs may at least in part result from the involvement of opioid mechanisms only in the action of clonidine.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)