The quantum mechanical motion of the atomic nuclei is considered over a single- or a multidimensional subspace of electronic states which is separated by a gap from the rest of the electronic spectrum over the relevant range of nuclear configurations. The electron-nucleus Hamiltonian is block-diagonalized up to O(ϵn+1) through a unitary transformation of the electronic subspace, and the corresponding nth-order effective Hamiltonian is derived for the quantum nuclear motion. Explicit but general formulas are given for the second- and the third-order corrections. As a special case, the second-order Hamiltonian corresponding to an isolated electronic state is recovered which contains the coordinate-dependent mass-correction terms in the nuclear kinetic energy operator. For a multidimensional, explicitly coupled electronic band, the second-order Hamiltonian contains the usual Born-Oppenheimer terms and nonadiabatic corrections, but generalized mass-correction terms appear as well. These, earlier neglected terms, perturbatively account for the outlying (discrete and continuous) electronic states not included in the explicitly coupled electronic subspace.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry